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讲解

A.句子的种类(意义上划分)

1.陈述句(=肯定+否定) 2.疑问句 (= 一般+特殊+选择+反义) 3.祈使句 4.感叹句

 

1.陈述句 传递陈述信息(=肯定+否定)

China is the largest country in Asia.中国是亚洲最大的国家。

I didn't tell him anything.我什么也没有告诉他。

2.疑问句 提出问题(= 一般+特殊+选择+反意)

一般疑问句 Are you Tom?你是汤姆吗?(判断句)

选择疑问句 Is Tom fat or thin?汤姆是胖还是瘦?(描写句)

特殊疑问句 What do you want?你要什么?(动态句)

反意疑问句 There is hope,isn't there?有希望,没有吗?(存在句)

3.祈使句 要求、建议、劝告等。Be careful.小心。(动词原形引导)

Don't be careful.不用小心。(描写句)

4.感叹句 喜悦、厌恶等感情。How busy you are!你好忙啊!(描写句)

B.句子的类型(结构分析)

1.简单句 2.并列句 3.复合句

 

1.简单句 主语+谓语+宾语。I love you.双主语结构,如 You and I like pets.

2.并列句 I like swimming but he likes skating.我喜欢游泳,而他喜欢滑冰。

3.复合句 Please go and find out when the train will arrive.

请去弄清楚火车什么时候到。

He is the man who wants to see you.他就是想要见你的那个人。(判断句+动态句)

C.从句类型(分析句子)

1.表语从句 2.宾语从句 3.状语从句 4.主语从句 5.定语从句 6.同位语从句

1.表语从句

定义 用句子来充当表语成分。

注意从句必须有引导词,无引导词时就用that(多见what why... 等疑问词,但其性质

已经完全改变了)

This is what we should do.这是我们应当做的。

分析 主+系+表=判断句(表语=动态句=表语从句)

 

That's why I want you to work there.那就是我要你在那儿工作的原因。

分析 why引导的表语从句=动态句(无引导词的句子=主句=判断句)

She seems as if she had done a great thing.她看起来好像做了一件大事。

分析 as if引导的表语从句=动态句(无引导词的句子=主句=判断句)

It is because you eat too much.那是因为你吃得太多了。

分析 because引导的表语从句=动态句(无引导词的句子=主句=描写句)

以下 作表语从句中的动词用原形或should+动词原形。

My suggestion is that we (should) go and help him.我的建议是我们应该去帮助他。

分析 that引导的表语从句=动态句(主句=判断句),主语=抽象概念的suggestion时考点

记忆谓语=动词原形或=should+原形动词。

Our only request is that this should be settled as soon as possible.

我们的唯一请求就是尽快解决这个问题。

分析 that引导的表语从句=动态句(主句=判断句),主语=抽象概念的request时考点记住

谓语=动词原形或=should+动词原形。

以下 与事实相反的表语从句须用as if, as though等来引出人的心里感受即虚拟语气

(谓语动词=过去时)。

When a pencil is partly in a glass of water,it looks as if it were broken.

当铅笔的1部分是在水里时它看起来好像断了。

分析 as if引导的表语从句=动态句(被动),主句=描写句,考点记住虚拟语气的谓语动词

用过去时。口诀:主现从过。

另when引导的时间状语从句=判断句(现在时)

She felt as if Tom were a member of her own family.

她感到汤姆就像她自己家中的成员似的。

分析 as if引导的表语从句=判断句(过去时),主句=描写句,考点记住虚拟语气的谓语

动词用过去时。口诀:主过从过。

注意 在as if,as though等引出的表语从句中若与事实相一致的真实虚拟时用将来时。

It looks as if we’ll be late.看起来我们似乎要迟到了。

分析 as if引导的表语从句=判断句(将来时),主句=描写句,记住虚拟语气的谓语动词

用将来时。口诀:主现从将。

This meat tastes as if it has already gone bad.这肉吃起来似乎已经坏了。

分析 as if引导的表语从句=描写句(完成时),主句=描写句,虚拟语气的谓语动词用

完成时。口诀:主现从完。

以上与事实一致的虚拟语气中的谓语动词必须根据现实来选择。

(谓语动词=要么完成时 要么将来时)

2.宾语从句

定义 用句子来充当宾语成分。

从句必须有引导词,无引导词时就用that

(多见who how... 等疑问词,但其性质已经完全改变了)

I know who you are.我知道你是谁。分析:主+谓+宾=动态句(宾语=判断句=宾语从句)

下面 的短语动词后出现了宾语从句。

That depends on how you do it.那得看你怎么做的。

分析 how引导的宾语从句=动态句(现在时),主句=动态句,谓语动词

depend on=短语动词。口诀:主现从现。

下面 的介词后出现了宾语从句。

I am interested in what she is doing.我对她正在做的事感兴趣。

分析 what引导的宾语从句=动态句(现在进行时),主句=描写句,介词in后=宾语从句。

(what=引导词又从句doing的宾语)

下面 宾语从句较短时前面的引导词that可以省略。学会否定转移见同义句。

翻译 我想你不习惯这种饮食。I don't suppose you're used to this diet.

=I suppose you aren't used to this diet.

翻译 我不认为她会得冠军。I don't imagine she will win the championship.

=I imagine she won't win the championship.

翻译 我不期待她能通过入学考试。

I didn't expect she would pass the entrance examination.

=I expected she wouldn't pass the entrance examination.

翻译 我觉得我们的时间不够。I don't think we have got enough time.

=I think we haven't got enough time.

翻译 我不相信她8点前会到。I don't believe she'll arrive before 8.

=I believe she won't arrive before 8.

下面 宾语从句表虚拟将来的假设、猜想、建议等意思时用should+动词原形

(should常被省略)。

翻译 我建议他用功一些。I suggested that he study harder.

分析 从句中study表将来必须用原形(其前面省略了should),that引导的宾语从句

=动态句(=现在时虚拟=动词原形)。

翻译 我强调他应当去。I insisted that he go.(省略 should=现在时虚拟=动词原形)

翻译 她命令他必须立刻进攻。She commanded that he attack at once.

(省略 should=现在时虚拟=动词原形)

翻译 我要求约翰必须立刻到那儿去。I demand that John go there at once.

(省略 should=现在时虚拟=动词原形)

insist,advise,arrange,command,demand,desire,order,propose,

require,request,suggest

翻译 她坚持认为他错了。She insisted that he was wrong.

(动作真实发生了用动词过去时)

分析 主句中insist=坚持认为(动作真实发生了无should不虚拟)。

翻译 他一定要我们收下这些礼物。He insisted that we (should) accept these gifts.

分析 主句中insist=坚决主张,坚决要求(有should虚拟) 。

翻译 汤姆坚持要他出席。Tom insisted that he be present.(be动词前省略了should)

分析 主句中insist=坚决主张,坚持要求(有should虚拟) 。

翻译 我并不是在暗示那意味着发生了什么事。

I'm not suggesting that is what is happening.

分析 主句中suggest=暗示,表明(动作真实发生了无should不虚拟)。

翻译 我建议你应该把这篇作文撕掉,再从头开始。

I suggest that you tear up the composition and start over again.

分析 主句中suggest=建议,提议(从句中应该有should为虚拟句) 。

v 现在科学家警告说,有一种肉眼看不到的能波即"电子烟尘"如果不加以控制,

可能危害人类的健康。

Now scientists warn that if not under control,the unseen energy waves

‘electric smog’may be hazardous to our health.

分析 宾语从句较长时引导词that不能省略。

宾语从句不长时引导词that能省略。

翻译 我希望你尽快康复。I hope (that) you'll be fine soon.

3.状语从句

定义 用句子来充当状语成分。

注意从句必须有引导词,无引导词时就用that

(多见when where... 等疑问词,但其性质已经完全改变了)

When Tom goes to town,he will visit her.汤姆进城时,总是要去拜访她。

这是一个时间状语从句

分析 When引导的时间状语从句=动态句(无引导词的句子=主句=动态句)

地点状语从句 I will go where I am needed.我要去需要我的地方。

分析 Where引导的地点状语从句=动态句(无引导词的句子=主句=动态句)

方式状语从句 I have changed it as you suggest.我已经按照你的建议作了改变。

分析 As引导的方式状语从句=动态句(无引导词的句子=主句=动态句)

原因状语从句 Tom didn’t go shopping because I advised her not to.

汤姆没去购物,因为我劝了他不要去。

分析 because引导的原因状语从句=动态句(无引导词的句子=主句=动态句)

目的状语从句 They worked hard in order that they might succeed.

他们努力工作,以便能够获得成功。

分析:in order that引导的目的状语从句=动态句(无引导词的句子=主句=动态句)

结果状语从句 Waste must be treated so that it does not become a danger to life.

废物必须进行处理,这样它才不会成为危害生命的东西。

分析 so that引导的结果状语从句=动态句(无引导词的句子=主句=动态句)

条件状语从句 If he works hard,he will surely succeed.如果努力工作,他肯定会成功。

分析 if引导的条件状语从句=动态句(无引导词的句子=主句=动态句)

让步状语从句 I must try,though I may fail.我必须尝试,即使会败北。

分析 though引导的让步从句=动态句(无引导词的句子=主句=动态句)

比较状语从句 I was happier than I had ever been in my life.

这是我一生中最快乐的时光。

分析 than引导的比较状语从句=判断句(无引导词的句子=主句=描写句)

4.主语从句

定义 用句子来充当主语成分。

从句必须有引导词,无引导词时就用that(多见what whom which... 等疑问词,

但其性质已经完全改变了)

What you need is more practice.你需要的是更多的练习。

分析 what引导的主语从句(What you need)=动态句,主句=判断句

Whoever wants it may have it.谁要都可以给他。

分析 whoever引导的主语从句(Whoever wants it)=动态句,主句=占有句

同类的连接代词(引导词)还有:

what·who·whom·whose·which·whatever·whoever·whichever

用从属连词that,whether引导的主语从句

It was strange that he had made a mistake.真奇怪,他竟然错了。

=That he had made a mistake was strange.

分析 it=that he had made a mistake=主语从句=动态句,主句=描写句

注意 主语从句不长时引导词that可以省略 如:

It's clear (that) he has done his best.很明显他已经尽力而为了。

It's a wonder (that) he didn't fail.真奇怪,他没有失败。

讲解 用when等连接副词引导的主语从句

When they will come hasn't been made public.他们什么时候来还没有公布。

分析 When they will come=主语从句=动态句

Where she has gone is not known yet.她去了哪儿,还不知道。

分析 Where she has gone=主语从句=动态句

注意 引导主语从句的连接副词有 when,where,how,why

主语从句用虚拟

讲解 形容词为necessary,strange,important,natural,essential时,

A.‘It+is+形容词+that...这一句型中,

that引导的主语从句里谓语要用假设法记用虚拟语气,如:

It is necessary that the problem (should) be discussed at once.描写句+动态句(被动)

立刻讨论这个问题很有必要。

It is strange that he (should) have so many friends.描写句+占有句(虚拟)

太奇怪了,他有那么多的朋友。

注意 It=that引导的主语从句.

It is important that everyone (should) attend the meeting.描写句+动态句(虚拟)

重要的是大家都要出席会议。

分析 省略should可以但不可忽略后面要用动词原形来体现虚拟语气。[出乎意料]

It`s only natural that you (should) be nervous.描写句+描写句(虚拟)

自然的是你定会感到紧张的。

主语从句用非虚拟

It is a pity that he didn't come to the party.判断句+动态句(非虚拟)

遗憾的是他没来参加晚会。非出乎意料

It is a pity that you missed the party.你未能参加聚会,真是遗憾。

It is a pity (that) he lost so much money.他损失这么多钱,真是遗憾。

同类的句型

It be a shame羞 that...

It be incredible不可信的 that...

It be strange奇怪的 that...如

It was strange that强调 he had made a mistake.描写句+动态句(非虚拟)

真奇怪他竟然错了。

引导词

what·who·whom·whose·which·whatever·whoever·whichever

强调句的引导词that、who

It is said that he`s got married.动态句(被动)+动态句(完成)

听说他已经结婚了。

It is said that…,这样的结构强调主语后面接的是主语从句.

主语从句中强调什么

It was she that had been wrong.错的是她。强调主语

It was this novel that they talked about last night.强调宾语

他们昨晚谈论的是这部小说。

It was in London that I first saw her.强调地点状语

我是在伦敦第一次见到她的。

5.定语从句

定义 用来修饰名词代词或名词词组。

先行词 被修饰的名词代词或名词词组。

引导词 连接先行词和从句的词。关系代词+关系副词

关系代词 who·whom·whose·that·which·as.
关系副词 when·where·why 无how

注意1 way被修饰时用that或in which引导或者省略掉。

I don`t like the way (that, in which) he eyed me.我不喜欢他看我的那个样子。略

先行词=the(这种)way(方式);引导词=that,in which,也可略。

注意2 人被修饰时who充当限制性定语从句中的主语,that也可。

Is he the man who/that wants to see you? who=the man=he=从句主语

他就是想见你的人吗?

A friend who/that helps you in time of need is a real friend.

患难之交才是真朋友。

分享 who=friend=从句主语

Those who want to go to the Great Wall sign up here.who=those=从句主语

要去长城的人在这儿签名。

They were the first who were here.who=the first=they=从句主语

他们是第一批到达这儿的人。

注意3 whom充当宾语,that也可。多见省略

He is the man (whom/ that)I saw yesterday.who=the man=he=从句宾语

他就是我昨天见到的那个人。

充当介宾时只能用whom,如:

This is the man to whom I referred.这就是我提到过的那个人。

短语 refer(提到)to

定语从句中只能用that:

先行词是人时9种情形只能用that。

 

1.出现who或which时:Who is the man that is standing by the door?

站在门边的那个人是谁呀?

 

2.作表语时:He is no longer the simple-minded man that he was five years ago.

他不是五年前那个头脑简单的人了。

My computer is not the machine that it was.

我的电脑已经不如从前了。

 

3.作宾补时:He is not the fool (that) you thought him.

他并不像你想象的那样傻。

 

4.人与物并列出现时:He spoke largely of the men and the things that he had seen.

他主要讲了他所见到的人和物。

 

5.先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰时:

He is the bravest man that I have ever seen.

他是我所见过的最勇敢的人。

This is the most interesting book that I have ever read.

这是我所读过的最有趣的书。

This is the longest bridge that I have ever seen.

这是我见过的最长的桥。

 

6.先行词被all·any·no·only·same·very·few·little修饰时:

Ask Tom or any other student that was there.

问问汤姆或是任何一位当时在那儿的学生。

 

7.先行词是everything·nothing·few·little·all·much等不定代词时:

Is there anything that you don’t understand?

还有你不懂的东西吗?

There are few that deal with this subject.

几乎没有人研究过这个课题。

 

8.被序数词所修饰时:

This is the first composition that he has ever written in English.

这是他第一本用英语写成的书。

 

9.先行词是数词或被数词限定时:

The two books that I bought yesterday are English stories.

昨天我买的两本书是英语短篇小说。

 

10.含有what about…问句时:

What about designing car engines that do not pollute the air?

设计一种不污染空气的汽车引擎怎么样?

定语从句中 不用that的2种情形:

1.分隔了引导词和谓语时:

He was a man who,if had been properly supported,would have worked wonders.

如果当时给与适当的支持他是1个本该创造出奇迹的人。

 

2.先行词是集体或群体时:

The crew[kru](全体船员) who were all asleep forgot to hoist the lantern.

熟睡的船员们全都忘了挂灯。

定语从句中 用which的6种情形:

1.婴幼儿及小孩子时:

He made a face to the child which was in the mother's arm.

他对抱在母亲怀中的婴儿做了个鬼脸。

 

2.先行词是1个整体的集体名词时:

The group which is made up of ten members is responsible for this decision.

由10人组成的那个小组负责这项决定。

 

3.强调身份·特征·地位时:

He talked like a foreigner which he hardly was.

他说起话来像个外国人而他根本就不是。

 

4.先行词强调人的性格时:

He is the man which he was.他还是象过去那个老样子。

 

5.强调品德时:

He is a gentleman which his little brother isn't.

他很有绅士风度但他弟弟却没有。

 

6.先行词是that或those时:

Is it that which you asked me to find?

这就是你让我找的东西吗?

定语从句中 用whose的情形:

I`m writing a letter to Mike,whose motherm is ill.

我在给迈克写信,他的母亲生病了。

定语从句中 用which或that的情形:

Thank you very much for the present that/which you sent me.

非常感谢你送给我的礼物。

定语从句中 用关系副词when做时间情形:

在从句中先行词是时间状语。

This is the time when he normally arrives.

这是他通常到达的时间。

 

定语从句中 用关系代词which做at的介宾情形:

at which在定语从句中做时间状语。which作介宾,但that不能接在介词后作介宾。

This is the time at which he normally arrives.

这是他通常到达的时间。

 

定语从句中 用关系代词that在从句中做介词at的宾语。常省略。

‘that’和介词分开的情况下可做介宾。

This is the time (that) he normally arrives (at).

这是他通常到达的时间。

 

定语从句中 用关系代词that在从句中做动词forget的宾语。常省略。

This is the day (that) I shall never forget.

这是一个我永远不会忘记的日子。

 

定语从句中 注意介词与关系代词的搭配。

Monday was the day on which he left.

星期一是他离开是日子。

‘on which’相当于‘on Monday’

 

定语从句中 注意句子的改写:

This is the time when he normally惯例 arrives.

这是他通常到达的时间。

‘when he normally arrives’在这里是定语从句

=This is when he normally arrives.

‘when he normally arrives’在这里是表语从句

定语从句中 关系代词which做in的介宾。

This is the garden in which he sunbathed.

这是他做日光浴的花园。

 

定语从句中 关系代词that在从句中做介词in的宾语。常省略。

‘that’和介词分开的情况下可作介宾。

This is the garden (that) he sunbathed in.

这是他做日光浴的花园。

 

定语从句中 关系代词which/that在从句中做动词built的宾语。常省略。

This is the garden (which/that) we built three years ago.

这是我们三年前建造的花园。

 

定语从句中 关系代词that/which在定语从句中做主语。

This is the garden that/which gives me leisure悠闲 every morning.

这就是一个每天早晨给我悠闲的花园。

 

定语从句中 先行词是地点时(garden)关系副词where在从句中作地点状语

This is the garden where he sunbathed.

这是他做日光浴的花园。

注意 先行词是抽象地点名词 如 point·stage·position·case·policy·

condition等 用where引导定语从句。

There is one point where I`d like your advice.存在句+动态句

有一点,我想听听你的建议。

There are cases where this rule does not hold good.

在一些情况下,这个规则是不适用的。


定语从句中 先行词是reason 关系副词why在从句中做原因状语用that可替换也可省略。

Please tell me the reason why you were absent.

请告诉我你为什么缺席。

This is the reason (that) he came.

这就是他来这儿的理由。

定语从句中 关系代词that/which在从句中做谓语动词身后的宾语也可省略。

As to the reason(that/which)he had given, a baby would have refusedit.

至于他所说的理由就是小孩子也不会相信的。

感触 先行词是way遇介词短语in which在从句中做方式状语。

能用关系副词that 替换也可省略。

This is the way in which he did it.正式文体

这就是他做这件事的方式。

This is the way(that)he did it.非正式文体

这就是他做这件事的方式。

It`s the way(that/in which) they used to do it.

这就是过去他们做这件事的方式。

 

定语从句中 关注which在从句中的成分:

宾语

Is this the key(which/that)you are looking for?可略

这就是你在找的钥匙吗?

介宾

This is the man to whom I referred.介词和介宾相邻时不能省略

这就是我提到过的那个人。

This is the man (whom)I referred to.介词和介宾非相邻时可略

这就是我提到过的那个人。

宾补

He is not the fool(that)you thought him.可略

他并不像你想象的那样傻。

表语

She is no longer the person(that)she used to be.可略

她已经不是过去的她了。

主语

There is…存在句(有...)

There`s something(that)keeps worrying me.可略that

有件事总让我担心。

There is a table(that)stands near the window.可略that

有一只桌子放在窗旁。

There is somebody(who)wants you on the phone.可略who

有人给你打电话。

Here is…存在句(这有...)

Here is a book(that)will tell you how to master English quickly.

这让有一本书会告诉你怎样快速掌握英语。

插入语

He stopped the students from doing things(that)he thought were wrong.可略that

他不让学生做他认为是错的事情。

He asked for something(that)I knew couldn`t be done.

他所要的东西我知道是无法提供的。

定语从句中 遇时间\地点\原因\方式等名词时关系副词when\where\why\that可略.

This is the place(where)we met last week.可略where

这就是上周我们见面的地方。

This is the reason(why)I did it.可略why

这就是我干这事的理由。

That was the way(that)she looked after me.可略that

那就是她照顾我的方式。

定语从句中 遇到带介词的关系代词in which=where\at which=when

This is the time at which he normally arrives.when=at which

这是他通常到达的时间。

参考 This is the time that he normally arrives at.

这是他通常到达的时间。

介词可以脱离关系代词置于从句的谓语动词之后。词组禁分拆came across.

注意 关系代词who在从句中主要作主语在非正式语体里who还可以作从句中的宾语。

I met someone who said he knew you. who=主语

我碰到了说自己认识你的一个人。

Succeed will come to him who is honest and diligent. who=主语

成功将归于诚实而勤奋的人。

The man whom I saw told me to come back today.whom=宾语

我见到的那个人叫我今天返回。

He is the man whom I saw in the park yesterday.whom=宾语

他就是我昨天在公园里见到的那个人。

=He is the man I saw in the park yesterday.作宾语用的引导词可以省略

 

定语从句中 感触到whose指人或物时只能用作定语。若指物时还能同of which互换。

讨论 Please pass me the book whose(of which)cover is green.

请递给我那本绿皮的书。

 

定语从句中 感触到which指物时作主语或宾语(作宾语时在非正式语体中可略)。

They needed a plant which didn't need as much water as rice.主语=which

他们需要一种不像水稻那么需要水的作物。

 

发现 在which和that面前多选which:

I never met Tom again after that,which was a pity.

从那以后我再也没有见到汤姆真是遗憾。

规则 在非限制性定语从句中用which作引导词时禁用that

He can swim in the river,which I cannot.他能在河里游泳而我不能。

规则 非限制性定语从句修饰着整个主句。

 

定语从句中 感触到关系代词that多用来指物有时也可以用来指人作从句中的主语或宾语。

指物 作主语(也可用which):

It`s a question that(which)needs careful consideration.

这是1个需要仔细考虑的问题。

指人 作主语:

Who is the man that is reading a magazine under the tree?

树下那个在看杂志的那个人是谁?

指人 作宾语(也可略):

The girl (that)we saw yesterday is Tom`s sister.

我们昨天看到的那个女孩是汤姆的妹妹。

 

定语从句中 感触到只能用that作引导词禁用which。


先行词=all、everything、anything、nothing、little等不定代词时。

All that she lacked缺少 was training训练.

她所缺少的是训练。

Have you everything you need?你要的东西都有了吗?

everything、anything=先行词时可略that.

Is there anything I can do for you?

有什么事要我做吗?

All you have to do is to press the button.略that

你所要做的就是按一下电钮。

all、everyone、everybody、no one、nobody、those后面的that转替代who:

Everyone who\that knew him liked him.that转替代who

认得他的人都喜欢他。

 

定语从句中 感触到表示地点的where=介词+which时用that(可略)。

This is the place that(=where=at which)he works.可略that

这就是他工作的地方。

定语从句中 感触到表示时间的when=介词+which时用that(可略)。

This is the last time that I shall give you a lesson.可略that

这将是最后1次我给你们上课。

We left the day(that/when)he arrived.可略

我们在他来的那天走的。

 

定语从句中 感触到关系副词that用来代替why表示原因。

The reason that(=why)he lost his life was lack缺乏of medical care.

他的死是由于缺乏医疗。

定语从句中 感触到as结构引导限制性定语从句时禁which

the same…as、as…as、such…as、so…as

观察主句中出现the same、as、such、so修饰先行词时选择as做关系代词在定语从句中

做主语或宾语。

It`s the same person as we wanted to find yesterday.宾语=as

我们昨天要找的是同一个人。

Such girls as he knows are good at English.宾语=as

他所认识的女孩都擅长英语。

Do you have such books as we like?宾语=as

你有我们喜欢那种书吗?

 

定语从句中 感触到到的省略:

Is there anything(which)you wanted? 可略宾语which

想要什么东西吗?

China is not the country(that)it was.可略表语that

中国已不是过去的中国了。

This is the reason(why)I did it.可略状语why

这就是我这样做的原因。

This is the way I look at it.略that\in which

这就是我对这件事的看法。

how不是关系副词,the way后面可用that\in which引导但不能用how。

考点 in which=where;for which=why;in\on\at+which=when.

That was the year(that)I first went abroad.可略when\that

就是那一年我第1次出国了。

day、year、time后可略when\that.

I`ll never forget the day(that)we met.可略when\that

我永远也忘不了我们见面的那一天。

 

This is the place(where)they met yesterday.可略where\that

这就是他们昨天碰头的地方。

place\somewhere\anywhere\everywhere\nowhere后可略where\that.

 

定语从句中 感触到的虚拟语气

表‘早该做某事而已经有些晚了’如:

It is time that we went to bed.

我们早该该上床睡觉了。

=It's time for us to go to bed.

That`s the reason(why\for which\that)he came.可略why\for which\that

这就是他来的原因。

 

提示 why在the reason后引导定语从句也可换成that或for which它们皆可省略。

参考 I don`t care what he thinks.我不在意他怎么想。宾语从句

理解 名词性定语从句可转去作主语、宾语、表语。

what=the thing(s) which=宾语=1个名词性定语从句

参考 I don`t care the thing(s) which he thinks.我不在意他怎么想。

定语从句=which he thinks.(which引导的句子修饰things作定语从句)

解释 复合关系代词the thing(s)which既包含先行词the thing(s)又包含有引导词which.


Don`t worry.I will give you what help I can.

别担心,我会尽力帮助你的。

联想 what help=any help that,as much help as

Don`t worry.I will give you any help that I can.

Don`t worry.I will give you as much help as I can.

 

whoever=the one(he\she) who

Whoever gets home first starts cooking the supper.

谁先到家,谁就开始做晚饭。

参考 The one who gets home first starts cooking the supper.

非限制性定语从句

定义 句子中即使缺少仍然完整。

非限制性定语从句只是起到补充说明的作用,去掉定语从句部分,这个句子还是完整的。

I have many friends,some of whom are painters.

我有许多朋友,其中有些是画家。

As is known to all,Taiwan is part of China.

众所周知,台湾是中国的一部分。

提示 as引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在句首,而which不能。

As we all know,Tom works hard and is willing to help others.

汤母工作努力并且乐于助人,这一点我们都知道。

参考 限制性定语从句

He is the man whom I saw in the park yesterday.无定语从句 意思不完整

他就是我昨天在公园里见到的那个人。

There was no one but knows that.没有人不知道那件事。

讨论 关系代词but的先行词多否定或疑问,只能引导限制性定语从句;在从句中

只能做主格可以是人也可以是物。

 

学习 肯定意义的as只能用于非限制性定语从句但which不限;

定语从句在前面时一定是as禁止用which;否定句中as不能替换which;

指代整个主句内容的as引导非限制性定语从句,可置于句首、句中或句尾;

当谓语为被动式时常用as做主语。

As everyone knows,Chinais a beautiful country with a long history.

每个人都知道,中国是一个有着悠久历史的美丽国家。

The earth,as we know,moves round the sun.

地球,我们都知道,围着太阳转。

Tom works hard and is willing to help others,as we all know.

汤母工作努力,并且乐于助人,这一点我们都知道。

As is known to all,Taiwan is part of China.as作被动主语

 

引导非限制性定语从句的as 有‘如、似、正像’的含义。

下列句式如:

as we had expected正如我们所预料的那样

as has been said above如上所说

as anybody can see正像每个人所看到的那样

The boy has as much progress as we had expected.

正像我们所预料的那样,这个男孩取得了大的进步。

He was a foreigner,as I knew from his accent口音.

他是一个外国人,我从他的口音得知的。

关系代词who·whom·whose引导的非限制性定语从句指人。

This is Kate,whose sister you met last week.判断句+动态句

这位是凯特,在上个星期你就已经见过她的妹妹了。

重要 区别which与whose,两者在定语从句中都可用作定语,区别是:

whose=one`s,而which=that=this.

提示 whether·what·how可用来引导同位语从句而不能引导定语从句。

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