赵氏52英语不定式 著作 太阳 ZHAOFU <项目好 可投资>

不定式的基本公式 to+V (教师上课时称to do ,在此的助动词do代表任意动词)
定义 把计划要做的事
,通过动词的to do形式表现出来。
范围 出谓语动词外能充当主、宾、表、定、
状、补与插入语。
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扩张 23种↓

1.肯 to+V
To forgive is divine.原谅别人是神圣的[di`vain].*主语=不定式=To forgive,谓语用3单现。主语
Why do you want her to leave?你为什么要让她走呢? 宾语
My son's dream is to be an astronaut.我儿子的理想是当宇航员。表语
I'm glad to have met you.我很高兴认识了你。状语
We didn't expect you to be waiting for us here.我们没期待你会在这儿等我们。宾补
We want something to eat.我们想要点吃的。定语
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2.否 not+to+V(例句作\补语\宾语)
>I go in quietly so as not to disturb the host[houst].我悄悄地进去为的是不惊动男主人。状语
[
`kwaiэtli]秘密地 [dis`tэ:b]打扰 *in orderso as+不定式=表目的。*so as to只用在句中间。

She pretended not to see me when I passed by.我走过的时候,她假装没看见。宾语
*never+to+V
My parents taught me never to tell lies.我的父母告戒我千万不要说慌。补语
She vowed never to speak to him again.她发誓再也不跟他说话了。[vau]发誓 宾语
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3.用2个不定式
We want to find something to eat.我们想找点吃的东西。宾语\定语
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4.疑 what how...+to+V
>You must decide what to do with her.你必须决定该对她怎么办。宾语
The little boy is learning how to sheet a bed.小男孩正在学习怎样铺床单。宾语
Don't keep asking me what to do.不要老是问我该做什么事。直接宾语
Please show us how to do that.请演示给我们如何去做。直接宾语
I can't make up my mind which to buy.我都拿不定主意买哪一种。定语


◇检索到14动词后跟疑问不定式 \decide\know\consider\forget\learn\remember\show\understand\
\see\wonder\hear\find out\explain\tell\

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5.进行to+be+Ving
Your work seems to be leading nowhere.你的工作似乎不会有什么结果。
表语
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6.完成 to+have+Ved
Your secret appears to have leaked out.你的秘密看来已经泄露了。
[`si:krit]秘密 [li:k]泄露
This seems to have given wings to a tiger.这就如同给虎添翅。
I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble.
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7.完成进行 to+have+been+Ving
>Tom wished to have been reading so much as others.她真希望过去也像他人那样看那么多书。

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8.被动 to+be+Ved
The dictionary is nowhere to be found.哪本字典哪儿也找不到。

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9.完成被动 to+have+been+Ved
They seems to have been made for each other.他们好像是天生的一对儿。

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10.只有to的不定式
>
We hope to.我们是想那样。<表示同意前面的判断>
I went there becauce I wanted to.我去那儿,是因为我要去。<省略:go there防止重复>
He wants to move to France and marry the girl.
*由and\orthan连接的两个不定式,第2个to 可以省去。

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11.分解不定式=to...+V
>
He began to slowly get up off the floor.他慢慢地从地板上爬起来。<用副词分隔开称分裂不定式>
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12.省略to的不定式
>I saw him steal a car yesterday.我昨天看见他偷了
1辆车.。*变被动时要恢复to,否则2个动词相互排斥。
=He was seen to steal a car by me yesterday.*感官动词和使役动词后面作宾补的不定式省略to.

*do nothing but 后略toHe did nothing but wait. 除了等,他什么也没做。
*why not后略to Why not ask Tom? 干嘛不问问汤姆?

*主语从句中的谓语=do时,系动词be后面的动词省略to
The only thing I can do is lie in bed.我唯一能做的事就是躺在床上。
What I want do is have a good rest.我想要做的事就是有一个好的休息。

*主句中有do时,but,exceptbesides后面的动词不定式省略to
We couldn't do anything but sit there and wait.我们毫无办法,只好坐在那儿等着。
He wants to do nothing but go out.
比较
He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine. *无do,有to

She did nothing except complain while she was here.她在这儿时除了抱怨还是抱怨。
She does everything except go to school.她怎么也不上学。
She does everything besides go to school.
提示 当遇到前有动词do时,后面出现的动词前面不带to。


◇检索到11个感官动词后跟无to的不定式作补语
\see\hear\feel\watch\notice\
look at\observe\listen to\smell\feel\find 等后作宾补,省略to。
注意 在被动语态中则to 不能省掉。
I saw him dance.=He was seen to dance.
The boss made them work the whole night.
=They were made to work the whole night.

I saw him do it.我看见他干的。*考点 变被动语态时,要加上to.
=He was seen to do it by me.
I heard Tom sing.我听见了汤姆唱歌。
=Tom was heard to sing by me.


◇检索到3个使役动词后跟无to的不定式作补语
\have\make\let\

All right,let's try it out.那样也好,先试试看。
Let me listen to you sing the song.让我听听你唱这首歌。
=You will be listened to sing the song(by me). *let切换成by.
考点 let引导的祈使句=将来时,转换条件是情态动词+动词原形来实现。


⊙情态动词(除ought to外)+V(动词原形)如would rather\had better等。
He would rather play than work.他宁可玩也不愿工作。
I had better be on my way soon.我最好早点走。

Why not+V
Why not go now?现在就去好不好?
Why not take a holiday?干吗不去度假?
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13.省略不定式(to do)
He seems (to be) happy.=It seems that he is happy.他似乎很幸福。
He seemed (to be) rich.=It seemed that he was rich.他似乎很有钱。
He is supposed (to be) nice.
他应该是个好人。

⊙通常在\seem\discover\imagine\suppose\think\understand\ 等词后,可以省去to be.
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13.help不略to也对
>He helped me to peel the potatoes.他帮我削马铃薯皮
.。*变被动时要恢复to,否则2个动词相互排斥。
He helped me peel the potatoes.*变被动时要恢复to,否则2个动词相互排斥。
He helped to peel the potatoes.*不定式作宾语无被动。
He helped peel the potatoes.他帮助削马铃薯皮.。
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14.for+人+to+V (for+n=不定式的逻辑主语)
It's impossible for me to leave my family.我是不可能离开家的。

◇检索到5个词用for+n=不定式的逻辑主语(表客观现象特征特点的形容词)
\easy\hard\difficult\interesting\impossible\
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15.of+人+to+V (of+n=不定式的逻辑主语)
It's nice of you to help us.承蒙您的好意帮助我们。
*of you =不定式的虚拟主语。
It's nice of you to ask me,but I don't think so.谢谢你问我,但我不这样认为

Is it impudent of me to visit you without invitation?我冒昧来访你不会不高兴吧?
It was impudent of her to answer like that.她那样回答真是太无礼了。
It was foolhardy of him to go swimming alone.他独自去游泳真是鲁莽。
It was kind of you to offer.谢谢你的热心。
How kind of you to help.太好了有你的帮助。
◇检索到5个词用for+n=不定式的逻辑主语(表人的性格品德主观态度感情的形容词)
\good\kind\ nice\clever\foolish\right\
比较
You are nice.你是健康的。道理顺用→of。
It's nice of you to say that.谢谢你的夸奖。*请用介词of后面的宾格you检测一下就迎刃而解了。

He is hard.人是困难的。道理不通改用→for
精华:
for of 的应用看主系表结构应用是否合理。
It's vrey hard for him to study two language.对他来说学2门外语很难。*请用介词for后面的宾格him检测一下。................................

16.too...to+V=表否定(太...以致于)
It's too presumptuous of him to do so.他这样做太放肆了。
He is too excited to speak.他太激动了,说不出话来。
It's too expensive for me to buy.太贵了我买不起。*for me=不定式的虚拟主语。
The light is too dim[dim] for me to read.光线太暗了我无法看书。

Can I help you?需要我帮忙吗?
Well,I'm afraid the box is too heavy for you to carry it, but thank you all the same.
不用了。这箱子太重,恐怕你搬不动。谢谢您。


It's never too late to mend.(谚语)改过不嫌晚。
*too前有否定词,则整个句子用否定词表达肯定,too后面那个词表达一种委婉含义,意为"不太"。

I'm only too pleased to be able to help you.我非常高兴能帮助你。
He was but too eager to get home.他非常想回家。

*当too 前面有only\all\but时,表非常(very).
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17.enought to+V=足能...
I am old enough to go to school.我已到了上学的年龄。
He was kind enough to help me.他十分亲切地帮助了我。
He was kind enough to show me the way.他十分亲切的告诉我怎么去。
Would you be good enough to keep silent?情你保持安静好吗?
You are wise enough to solve this problem.你有足够的智慧来解答这个问题。
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18.不定式=插入语
To be plain坦白的 with you,I know nothing about it.坦白对你讲,我对此一无所知。
To tell the truth,I fell asleep in the middle.说实话,我在中间睡着了

To tell the truth,I told you a lie.说实话,我对你说谎了
To tell the truth,I don't like your personality.说实话,我不喜欢你的性格
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19.不定式=虚拟的1句子

We agreed to start early.我们同意早动身。
=We agreed that we should start early.*to=虚拟主语,V=虚拟谓语 *切换成句子时,to=主语+情态动词。
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20.不定式=直接引语中的祈使句
直接引语‘Don't run so quickly,'Tom said to him.‘别跑的那么快',汤姆对他说道。
=间接引语Tom told him not to run so quickly. *祈使句切换成to+do 形式。
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21.不定式to与介词短语to
We don't need to go to Tom's.我们不用去汤姆的家。*to+v=不定式to+n=介词短语

◇检索到10组
介词短语而非不定式用法
admit to承认\confess to承认\pay attention to 注意\look forward to 盼望\devote oneself to 献身于\
be accustomed to 习惯于\be used to 习惯于\stick to 坚持\turn to开始,着手于\be devoted to 致力于\
Tom would never admit to being wring.汤姆从不认错。
Tom finally confessed to having stolen the money.汤姆最后招认偷了那笔钱。
Pay attention to what I say,please.请注意听我说。

Let the cobbler stick to his last.安分守己。 直译:让鞋匠粘他最新的活。
The pond will soon turn to ice.这池塘很快就会结冰。

He devoted himself to writing.他专心写作。
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22.不定式的感叹
Oh,to be young again! 啊!要是返老还童该多好!
Oh,to be in England! 啊!要是在英伦该多好
参考
How I wish to see my old friends again!我多么想见我的老朋友们呀!
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23.短语不定式in order to\so as to\so+形\副+as+to...\only to\such as to\
*in order to
He rose in order to welcome me.
他起身欢迎我。
=He rose to welcome me.
Is it in order to speak now?按规定现在可以发言吗?

In order to realize my dread,I exercise every day.为了实现我的梦想,我每天都在做练习。
In order to take,one must first give.将欲取之,必先与之。
In order to nurn it.为了点燃它。
否定
In order not to be late,she cut across the fields.为了不迟到她抄近路穿过田野。
It is not in order to interrupt.打断别人的发言是违反会议规定的。

*so as to
She is saving money so as to buy a house.她正在存钱,为了买一套房子。
Listen carefully so as to follow the teacher.要仔细听才能听懂老师讲的课。

否定
He did a gread deal of exercise so as not to put on flesh.他做了大量运动以防止发胖。
He disconnected the phone so as not to be disturbed.他为了不受打扰把电话线路给关掉了。
Tom kept quiet about the accident so as not to lose his job.汤姆对事故保持沉默是为了不丢掉他的工作。
Go in quietly so as not to wake the baby.轻点进去,别惊醒了婴儿。


*so kind as to

Would you be so kind as to tell me the time?劳驾,现在几点了?

其它
Personally,I wouldn't go so far as to say that.就我个人而言,我还不至于说出那事。
He ran so fast as to catch the first bus.他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。
He ran so fast as to come in first.他跑得如此地快,第1个进来了。

You weren't so naive as to believe him,were you?你没用轻易的信他,是吧?

I come here only to say good-bye to you.我来仅仅是向你告别。

His illness is such as to cause引起 anxiety焦虑.他的病很重,令人担忧。

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◆讨论1
这里专题讨论不定式在52英语中的用法:


A.判断句中的不定式
To know everything is to know nothing.事事皆通,事事皆松主语 表语

B.描写句中的不定式
>I am (too) hungry to go any further.我太饿了,走不动了。(我太饿了,若再走更远的路。----英式逻辑)
考点:Too...to.../表示太...而不能...。肯定不定式:表示否定意义。

It's easy (for me) to do that.我做这事太容易了。
It's so nice to hear your voice.听到你的声音真高兴。
It's necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it.当你不用车的时候,锁车是有必要的。
It's very kind of you to help us.他帮助我们,他真好。
It was silly of us to believe him.我们真愚蠢,竟然相信了他。
It seemed selfish of him not to give them anything.他不给他们任何东西,这显得太自私了。
*系动词look,appear等也可用于此句型,动词为单数形式。

◇检索到28词与此有关:
\easy\difficult\hard\important\possible\impossible\comfortable\necessary\better\clever\foolish\
\
kind\nice\stupid\rude\thoughtful\thoughtless\brave\considerate考虑周到的\silly\selfish自私的
\the first\the next\the last\the best\too much\too little\not enough\

C.存在句中的不定式
>There's no time to lose.时间紧迫不可耽误。[lu:z]浪费
Is there anything to eat?有什么吃的吗?*to eat=anything的定语 记忆:不定式>>作后置定语.
There is too much work for a person to handle.[`hэendl]vt.经营有太多的事,1个人难以应付。
There isn't enough cake to go round.没有足够的蛋糕分给每个人。
There aren't enough chairs to go round.没有足够的椅子分给每个人。
There aren't enough tools to go round.没有足够的工具分给每个人。
There wasn't anywhere near enough to eat and drink.离吃饱喝足还远呢。
There's enough here to feed us all.有足够的食物在这儿,够我们大家吃的。

There's nothing to be afraid of.没用什么可怕的。
To my mind there can be only one outcome to the matter.我看这事只能有一种结局。


D.占有句中的不定式
We'll have something to eat late.我们过一会将有一些东西要吃。定语

E.动态句中的不定式
>I consider the host(to be)too lazy.我认为男主人太懒。[kэn`sidэ]细想
考点:believe,consider等动词后的不定词主要是to be,to be又可省略。

I feel it our duty to help others.我认为帮助别人是我们的责任。it=to+V
直译:我感觉到了它,我们的责任就是去帮助其他人。高手--就是转换成英语的语序思维逻辑。
考点:用形式宾语it代替不定词放在系动词feel后,真正的不定式短语放在了句尾。

I want to find something to eat.我想找点东西吃。考点:不定词一般在名词或代名词的后面作修饰语
I think it right for me to work here.我认为我在此工作是对的。
考点:for+名词/代名词宾格+不定词,=不定词所示动作的逻辑主语.*此句中的不定词片语for me to work here=it=宾语。


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◆讨论2
这里专题讨论不定式本身在52英语中的应用:

A.不定式=判断句
You're not smart not to want to be my partner.你不是明智的,不想去当我的搭档。
What's it to be? 要哪个? 参考中式英语:It is to be what? <what提前is 随后>

B.不定式=描写句
We're sorry to be late.对不起,我们来晚了。状语
The book is believed to be uninteresting.人们认为这本书没什么意思。

◇检索到15个to+be+形容词的不定式:Seem\appear\be said\be supposed\be believed\be thought\be known\
be reported\hope\wish\desire\want\pian\expect\mean\

C.不定式=存在句
We didn't expect there to be so many people there.
我们没料到会有那么多人在哪里。

◇检索到10个动词与此有关believe\expect\intend\like\love\mean\prefer\want\wish\undrstand\


D.不定式=占有句
We want to have the first two.我们要开头那两个。宾语
The vase seems to have an orien东方的 origin起源.这只花瓶好像来自东方。表语

E.不定式=动态句
We expect you both to have been getting along quite well.我们期待你们俩一直相处甚好。宾补

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◆讨论3

这里讨论不定式作什么成分?

1.作主语
To learn a foreign language is not easy.学习1门外语不容易。描写句
=It's not easy to learn a foreign language.
*使用此方法能变一般疑问句,如:

Is it easy to learn a foreign language?学门外语容易吗? *作主语> 充当名词

To err is human.犯错误是人之常情。err[э:]vi.犯错误 [`hju:mэn]a.凡人皆有的。
*当不定式作主语,另一个不定式作表语时,不能用It is...to...的句型
√To see is to believe.百闻不如一见。 ×It is to believe to see.


It is wrong to do such a thing.做这种事是不对的。
* 不定式主语常用it作形式主语,特别在变一般疑问句时只能用it作形式主语。
除动词be外,动词take、cost、make等动词也适用于上述结构。这叫:先推结果,后作铺垫。

It takes a bit of nerve to transport explosives.运输炸药要有点胆量。
*[nэ:v]胆量n.[trэens`p:t]运输v. [iks`plousiv]炸药

It costs a quid to get in.进去要花1英镑。quid[kwid]1英镑(£1)(俚语)
Does it cost a quid to get in? 进去要花1英镑吗?

It makes me feel good to know you like me.我知道你喜欢我,感到很高兴。
直译:它让我感觉好,我(=to)知道你喜欢我.
*英语思维逻辑.*先结果后其他
*不定式在句子中作主语时,如不定式主语太长,常用it作形式主语,而将不定式后置,

2.作表语
My dream is to own a toy factory.我的梦想是拥有1家玩具工厂。
my dream is to be a doctor.我的梦想是当1名医生。

The important thing is to finish the work on time.重要的是按时完成工作。
They are to be waiting for us at the station.他们在车站等我们。
考点:不定式放在be和其它系动词后做表语,用来说明主语的内容。

The question is how to put it into practice.问题是怎样把它付诸实施
注意 特殊疑问词与不定式连用也可以作表语。

3.作宾语
The driver failed to see the other car in time.司机没能及时看见另一辆车。
I happen to know the answer to your question.我碰巧知道你那道问题的答案。
I like to keep everything tidy.我喜欢每件东西都保持整洁。

I regret to say that I am unable to help you.
很抱歉,我爱莫能助。

I will never agree to their demands.[di`ma:nd,US di`mэend]我决不同意他们的要求。作动词的宾语
I cannot but choose to go.我只好去哪儿。*cut除了选择去...而不能...
直译:我不能做别的,除了选择去外。*英语逻辑.


I find it important to learn a second foreign language.我发现学好二外很重要。作形容词的宾语
语法 须要形容词作宾语时,你必须用it作它的形式宾语。句型:主+V+it+形容词+to+V.

I want to speak to Tom.我想和汤姆谈话。I want you to speak to Tom.我想让你和汤姆谈话。
The big cities are full of allurements on(介词) which to spend money. [э`ljuэmnt]诱惑
大城市充满形形色色诱人的花钱事物。*特殊疑问词跟不定式连用时。作介词的宾语

◇检索到51个动词后跟不定式作宾语
agree\choose\decide\fail\hope\wish\want\learn\forget\remember\
\like\love\happen\hate\plan\need\try\begin\start\refuse\promise\manage\afford\offer\
\aim\appear\agree\arrange\ask\be\decide\bother\care\come\dare\demand\desire\determine\
\expect\elect\endeavor\hope\help\hesitate\long\mean\ought\prepare\pretend\seem\tend\
.......................................................................................
4.作补语
Tom asked me to show her the new dictionary.汤姆让我把新词典给她看看。
Tom encouraged me to talk to her.汤姆支持我与她交谈。*主语的动作=谓语;宾语的动作=补语
I like you to keep everything tidy.我喜欢你年使每件东西都保持整洁。

Father will not allow us to play on the street.
父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。

We believe him to be guilty.我们相信他是有罪的。
*Find\get\have 的特殊用法:用分词做宾补或形式宾语it+形容词+to do,也可带1个不定式作主语的从句。
I found that to learn English is important.
参考
I found him lying on the ground.
I found it important to learn.
◇检索到67动词后跟不定式作补语
\tell\wish\ask\want\like\beg\invite\permit\warn\allow\advise\encourage[in`kΛrid3]支持\require\

\choose\expect\hate\help\intend\love\need\prefer\prepare\promise\discover\fancy设想\select\believe\cause\challenge\command\compel\think\declare声称\imagine\know\drive\enable\prove\find\forbid\force\guess\hire\impel\induce\judge\inform\instruct\invite\order\permit\see理解\
persuade\remind\report\request\\state\suppose\train\trust\understand\urge\show\take以为\acknowledge承认\consider\
We consider Tom to be one of the best students in our class.我们认为汤姆是班上最好的学生之一。
注意 有些动词需用as 短语做补语,如 regard\think\believe\take\consider.
We regard Tom as our best teacher.我们认为汤姆是我们最好的老师。
Mary took him as her father.玛丽把他当作自己的父亲。

Tom asked me to show her the new dictionary.汤姆让我把新词典给她看看。

5.作状语

a.目的

>He rose in order to welcome me.他起身为了欢迎我。
>I meditate[`mediteit] in order to relax[ri`lэeks].我沉思冥想为了放松.
>The test questions are kept secret,so as to prevent cheating.试题必须保密,以防作弊.
[`si:krit][pri`vent]防止[ti:t]欺骗
>She is saving money so as to buy a house.她正在存钱,为了买栋房子。
>A book fair is to be held next month.下个月将举行书展。*be to
*不定式表目可用 in order to\so as to 换用。

b.结果
What have I said to make you angry.

>The coffee was too hot for her(to drink).咖啡太汤对她来说.
>The flood was too deep to drive through.洪水太深车开不过去。

>This is not enough to convince him.这不足以说服他。[kэn`vins]说服
>You're not man enough to fight me.你没有那个胆量跟我打!
>Tom is old enough to work.汤姆的年龄足可以工作了。
>We have enough fruit and to spare.我们的水果充足有余。[speэ]vt.剩下
>A bicycle is cheap to run.使用自行车是很经济的。
*表示结果,可用too...to...或形容词/副词 enough+to+V 切换。
*事先没有预料到的结果,其不定式必须后置。

c.原因

>I'm sorry to give you trouble.我真抱歉,因为给你添了麻烦。
I'm glad to see you.


6.作定语
>He has no work to do.他没有工作可做。*不定式作定语必须后置。
I have a lot of work to do.So he made some candles to give light.


...............................................................................
讨论4
*动词的3种非谓语形式
不定式·现在分词·过去分词
*动词不定式\不定式短语 没有人称和数的变化。
*可以有自己的宾语和状语。

*可以有时态和语态的变化。
这里专题讨论不定式的6种时态:

①一般式主动 to+V
>I'm glad to see you.我真高兴,因为见到你。表原因

②一般式被动 to be+Ved
The job has to be done.这份工作非做不可。*一般式表示动作或状态,暗指现在/将来。

③主动进行 to be doing
You've got to be kidding.你一定是在开玩笑。[kid]vi.开玩笑 *表谓语的动作或状态发生时,不定式正在进行着。

④主动完成 to have+Ved
You ought really to have asked me first.你本该先问问我。*表不定式发生在谓语动词之前的动作

⑤主动完成进行时 to have been+Ving
>We are happy to have been studying together with you.我们很高兴这段时间和你一起念书。
*表不定式发生的时间与谓语动词是同时的

⑥被动完成 to have been+Ved
Something ought to have been done before now.早就该采取措施了。*表发生在谓语动词之前的用不定式的完成式。

The normal正常的 conditions形势 seem to have been restored恢复[ri`st):d].好像已恢复常态。

比较:6种时态

*不 定 式 公 式
主动 | 被动

..................................
①一般 现 在 形式 to do | to be done *表示动作或状态与句中谓语是同时发生或之后发生的。
②现在完成 to have done | to have been done *表示发生在谓语动词之前的动作。
③现在 进行 to be doing | 无被动 *表与谓语的动作或状态发生时,其动作正在进行。
④完进to have been doing
|无被动 *表与谓语的动作或状态发生时,其动作已经并还正进行中。
..................................
①一般现在时:表示不定式与谓语动词的动作同时发生或之后。
He seems to know this.主动
It has to be done this way.它只能用这种方法去完成。被动
②完成时:动作发生在谓语动作之前。
He seems to have caught a cold.
主动
The witness[`witnis]证人 seemed to been primed about what to say.这位证人似乎经人指点过该说什么。被动
③进行时:表示动作正在进行,与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。
You seem to be having a spot of bother with your car.看来你的车有点让你伤脑筋了。
He seems to be eating something.
④完成进行时:
She is known to have been wreaking on the problem for many years.

........................................................................
◆讨论5
A.不定式与动名词的不同:

*一次性的不定式表达的是:目的\结果\原因\具体\将发生等。
To water the flower today is a pleasure.今天来浇花有件情趣。
*经常性的动名词表达的是:状态\性质\心境\抽象\已发生等。
Teaching English is my job.教英语是我的职业。


1.作主语的区别
→不定式与特定的人联系在一起
To talk with you is a greag pleasure for me.同你聊天是件很愉快的事。
→提示性动名词与特定的事物不发生现场的联系
Eating so much suger is not good for your teeth.吃如此多的糖对你的牙齿不好。

2.作宾语的区别
→不定式与特定的人联系在一起
I regret to say I can not come.很抱歉,我不能来。
→提示性动名词与特定的事物不发生现场的联系
I believe you will regret leaving Paris.我相信你会为离开巴黎而后悔的。

3.作表语的区别
→不定式与特定的事物联系在一起
My work is to clean the room every day.我的工作就是每天清扫这个房间。
→提示性动名词与特定的事物不发生现场的联系
His job is interesting.他的工作很有趣。

4.作定语的区别
→不定式与特定的人联系在一起,作后置定语。
Is there anything to eat?有什么吃的吗?定语
→提示性动名词与特定的事物不发生现场的联系,作前置定语。
My hobby is collecting stamps.我的爱好是集邮。


5.作状语的区别
→不定式与特定的事物联系在一起
The weather is too hot to bear.天太热无法忍受
→持续性的动名词与特定的事物联系不是绝对地紧密
Being ill,he has to go to hospital.因为生病,他不得不去看医生。*有人就不去就医

6.作补语的区别
→不定式与特定的人联系在一起。
I want you to speak to Tom.我想让你和汤姆谈话。
→提示性动名词与特定的事物不发生现场的绝对联系。
Don't have your children staying at home all day.不要让你的孩子们整天呆在家里。
................................
◇检索到11个接不定式与动名词意义不同的词组
regret to do·regret doing|cease to do·cease doing|interested to do·interested doing|
stop to do·stop doing|forget to do·forget doing|remember to do·remember doing|
go on to do·go on doing|afraid to do·afraid doing||begin to do·begin doing|
|
start to do·start doing|mean to do·mean doing|try to do·try doing|参考以下例句↓

*regret
I regret to say I can not come.我很抱歉地说我不能来了。
I regret to have to do this.我很遗憾必须这样去做。*regret to do对将要做的事遗憾。
I don't regret telling her what I thought.我不为告诉她我的想法而后悔。*regret doing对做过的事表遗憾.

*cease[si:s]停止
That department has ceased to exist forever.那个部门已不复存在。*cease to do长时间停做某事。
They ceased chatting for a moment when she passed by.他们在她走过时没用聊天。*cease doing暂停做某事。

*interested
I'll be interested to know what happens.我很想知道发生了什么事。*interested to do 感兴趣了解某事。
I'm interested in working in Switzerland. Do you have any idea about that?
我对在瑞士工作感兴趣。你想过这事吗? (一种想法).interested in doing对某种想法感兴趣,doing 通常为想法。

*stop

They stop to smoke a cigarette.他们停下来,抽了根烟。*stop to do 中断做某事后去做另一件事。
I must stop smoking.我必须戒烟了。*stop doing停止做某事。
*forget
Don't forget to come tomorrow.别忘了明天来。
He forgot to turn it off.
它忘记关上了。*forget to do忘记要去做某事.
He forgot turning the light off.他忘记他已经关上灯了。*forget doing忘记做过的事。
*remember
Remember to go to the post office after school.记着放学后去趟邮局。*remember to do记得会去做某事。
Don't you remember seeing the man before?你不记得以前见过那个人吗? *remember doing记得做过的事。

*go on
After he had finished his maths,he went on to do his physics.
做完数学后他接着又去做物理。*go on to do做某事后,接着做另件事。
Go on doing the other exercise after you have finished this one.
作完这道练习后,接着去做余下的。*go on doing仍继续做未完成的事。

*afraid
She was afraid to wake her husband.她不敢去叫醒她丈夫。*afraid to do主观上不去做.
She was afraid of waking her husband.她生怕吵醒她丈夫。*afraid of doing是客观上生怕。

Because she was afraid of being bitten by a snake.因为她生怕被蛇咬着。
*begin\start
It began to rain.天开始下雨。It started to rain.天开始下雨。*begin\start to do sth开始做某事
It began to grow dark.天渐渐黑了。
It's starting to thaw.天暖得开始化冻了。
I was beginning to get angry.我开始生起气来。*begin\start是进行时时,其后须用to do.
提示:在\begin\start\attempt\intend\后接know\understand\realize\smoke\这类动词时,用to do.
We began to know each other gradually.我们开始渐渐地互相熟悉起来。
I begin to understand the truth.我开始明白真相。
When did you start to smoke?你何时开始吸烟的。
How old were you when you first started playing the piano?
你几岁时开始弹钢琴? *begin\start doing sth长期活动或开始着某种习惯。
When did your child start going to a nursery?你家小孩何时入托的?

*mean 意味着
I mean to go,but my father would not allow me to.我想去,但是我父亲不肯让我去。*mean to do
To raise wage means increasing purchasing power.赠加工资意味着增加购买力。*mean doing意味着
*try
You must try to be more careful.你可要多加小心。*try to do努力做某事。
I tried gardening but didn't succeed.我试着种果木花卉但未成功。*try doing试验做著某事。


◇检索到10个感官动词+to+do\doing 的词\see\watch\observe\notice\look at\hear\listen to\smell\taste\feel\
*see
I saw him work in the garden yesterday.昨天我看见他在花园里劳动。*to do 强调事实的完整性与真实性。
I saw him working in the garden yesterday.昨天我见他正在花园里干活。*doing 强调该动作
的连续性与进行性
......................................

B.不定式与动名词意义相同:

We'll try to improve改进 our teaching methods方法.我们要设法改变教学方法。
Let's try knocking at the back door.让我们试试敲后门吧。

◇检索到3个接不定式与动名词意义相同的词 try\ regret[ri`gret]\ remember
I regret to say the job has been filled.我很抱歉地说这份工作已有人做了。
I regret causing him so much inconvenience.我很抱歉给他带来这么多不便。

Remember the way to go there?记得去那里的路吗?
Do you remember going to Norway?你还记得去挪威的情景吗?


.....................................................................................◇
◆讨论6
*典型例题

1.The next morning she found the man ___ in bed,dead. A.lying B.lie C.lay D.laying
答案A.find的宾语后面,用分词或分词短语,起宾语补足语作用。现在分词表达主动,也表达正在进行,过去分词表达被动。

2.Charles Babbage is generally considered___ the first computer.
A.to invent B.inventing C.to have invented D.having invented

答案A. 由consider to do sth. 排除B、D。此句只说明发明这一个事实,不定式后用原形即可。
而C为现在完成时,发明为点动词一般不用完成时,且此处也不强调对现在的影响,因此不选


3.The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it is very comfortable to ___.
A. sit B. sit on C. be seat D. be sat on

答案B.如果不定式为不及物动词,其后应有必要的介词。当动词与介词连用时,常位于"形容词+动词不定式"结构的末尾。

4.I usually go there by train. Why not ___ by boat for a change?
A. to try going B.trying to go C.to try and go D.try going答案D. why not 后面接不带to 的不定式,因此选D。


5.Paul doesn't have to be made ___. He always works hard.A.learn B.to learn C.learned D.learning
答案:B. make后接不带to 的动词不定式,当其用于被动时,to 不可省略。

6.Tell him ___ the window. A.to shut not B.not to shut C.to not shut D.not shut
答案B。 tell sb to do sth 的否定形式为tell sb not to do sth.

7.She pretended ___ me when I passed by. A.not to see B.not seeing C.to not see D.having not seen
答案A。 pretend 后应接不定式。其否定形式为pretend not to do sth.

8.Mrs. Smith warned her daughter ___ after drinking.
A.never to drive B.to never driverC.never driving D.never drive
答案A。warn sb to do sth. 的否定形式为warn sb not to do sth. 此处用的是否定词never.

9.The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street,but his mother told him ____.
A.not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to
答案A。not to 为not to do it 的省略形式。可以只用to这个词,而不必重复整个不定式词组。及物动词do后应有:名词、代词等,
否则不对,因此B,D不对。

10.The patient was warned __oily food after the operation.
A.to eat no B.eating not C.not to eat D.not eating
答案C。warn一词要求后用不定式,此处为不定式的被动,否定形式为be warned not to do。

11.She reached the top of the hill and stopped ___on a big rock by the side of the path.
A.to have rested B. resting C.to rest D.rest
答案C。由题意可知,她到了山顶,停下来在一个路边的大石头上休息。因此,应选择
"stop to do sth. 停下来去做另一件事"。而不仅仅是爬山动作的终止,所以stop doing sth.不正确。

12.She reached the top of the hill and stopped ___on a big rock by the side of the path.
A.to have rested B.resting C.to rest D. rest
答案C。由题意可知,她到了山顶,停下来在一个路边的大石头上休息。因此,应选择
"stop to do sth. 停下来去做另一件事"。而不仅仅是爬山动作的终止,所以stop doing sth.不正确。

13.The light in the office is still on. Oh,I forgot___.
A.turning it off B.turn it off C.to turn it off D.having turned it off
答案C。由the light is still on 可知灯亮着,即关灯的动作没有发生,因此用forget to do sth.
而forget doing sth表示灯已经关上了,而自己忘记了这一事实。此处不符合题意。


14.They knew her very well. They had seen her ___ up from childhood. A.grow B.grew C.was growing D.to grow
答案:A。因题意为,他们看着她长大,因此强调的是成长的过程,而非正在长的动作,因此用see sb do sth 的句型。

15.The missing boy was last seen ___ near the river.
A.playing B.to be playing C.play D.to play
答案A. 本题强调其动作,正在河边玩,应此用see sb. doing sth句型。

16.You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting. ---Well,now I regret ___ that.
A.to do B.to be doing C.to have done D.having done
答案D。regret having done sth. 对已发生的事感到遗憾。regret to do sth. 对将要做的事感到遗憾。
本题为对已说的话感到后悔,因此选D。

........................................................................................◇

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