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连词

常用表 名词 数词 代词 动词 副词 形容词 介词 连词 冠词 感叹词 疑问词 其它 目录


【讲座1

连词 and

规则
连词不能独立担当句子成分。

*温馨提示:1.连词and=和/又/而/与,除外还有其他的用法。

          2.and连接2个动词/2个名词/2个句子...

          3.对等连词and不能并用,也不能跟but.可用yet。


and/but/for/nor/therefore/before/after/who/whom/whose/which/what/when/where/why/that/if/whether/neither

对等连词and:连接对等的字/词/句子。

典型例句:并列关系

<
>We drank and talked.我们喝酒、谈心。*而且/并且

<>Hey,a pet shop.Let's go in and have a look.
嘿,宠物商店.咱们进去看看。

<+>You are my sister and she is my girlfriend.
你是我妹妹,她是我女朋友。

<
>Mary and I are engaged.玛丽和我定了婚。=Mary is engaged to me. [in`geid3d]已定婚的
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结果连词and:表示动作的结果。

典型例句:递进关系

<+>Do as you are told and you'll be all right.照吩咐你那样去做,你就会好的。

<
+>Go straight on and you'll see a church.一直走下去你便可以见到一座教堂。

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比连词and:表示比较。

典型例句:转折关系

<
+>Tom is a man of few words and Mary is talkative.
Tom沉默寡言,而Mary非常健谈。[`t ):kэtiv]多嘴的

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come/go/run/try+and+动词时口语常被省去:

典型例句:并列关系

<
+>Go and fetch a doctor. =Go fetch a doctor.去请位医生来。[fet]去请来

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and+yet=but:

典型例句:转折关系

<
+>You don't vote for either of us,and yet you nominate no other candidates. [vout][nomineit][kandideit]
你不选我们中的任何一位,但你也没有提出其他人选。[fet]去请来



【讲座2 but
规则
连词but不能独立担当句子成分。

*温馨提示:1.连词but=但是,除外还有其他的用法。

          2.but=感叹词。
          3.but=do=加强语气。
          4.but引入新话题。
          5.but=否定词。
          6.but=引导词that.
          7.but=除...外prep.
          8.but=仅仅ad.
          9.but=没有...不pron。


but--但是

典型例句:转折关系

<>It is hot in summer here, but it is not cold in winter.
这里夏天热,但是冬天不冷。

<>She looks very young, but she is already in her 30's.
她看上去很年轻,可是她已经30多岁了。 *but 然而

<>Our purpose is not to do it for you but to teach you to do it by youself.
我们的目的不是替你做着事,而是教会你自己来做。 *purpose[`pэ:pэs]意图

直译:我们的目的不是去做它为你,而是去教你做它靠你自己。

*直译---转换成英语的逻辑思维好吗!*not...but...不是...而是...

<>He was tired but happy after the long walk.
一段很长的路之后,他感到很累,但很快活。
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but--而且


典型例句:递进关系


<>This restaurant serves cheap but excellent food.[`eksэlэnt]
这家餐馆
价廉物美。
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but--感叹词:天哪

典型例句:
<>Heavens[`hevens], but it snows.天哪,真的下雪了。*but惊讶:喔,哇

<>‘I'm getting married.’ ‘ But that's wonderful!’
‘我快要结婚了。’‘啊,那太好了!’

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but--强调词:=do

典型例句:

<>We will be here on time.But on time.我们将准时到达这里,一定准时。*be=结果
*but=do加强句子重复部分的语气。do只能置于动词前表强调。


<>Go there but fast!赶快去那里!
<美:俚语>

补do:He does speak well.他的确说的很好。查动词
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but--引入新话题:那就

典型例句:
But now to the last question.现在就来谈最后一个问题。*but那就
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but--否定词:若不是

典型例句:

<
+>But that I saw it,I wouldn't have believed it.
若不是我亲眼目堵,我还不会相信呢。*
but若不是

<+>It's not so high but we can jump it.
它不是如此地高,以自于我们不能跳过它。*
but以自于...不...

*直译---请转换成英语的逻辑思维好吗!
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but--引导词that:对于

典型例句:

<+
>There is no doubt But he won.
没有什么可怀疑的,对于他获胜这一点。*but=对于 *doubt[daut]怀疑n.

*否定doubt/question...等词后面出现but时,相当引导词that=对于。
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but--在nothing/nobody/nowhere/who/all
等词后面:除...外.

典型例句:

<
>No one saw it But me.                 没有人看到,除我外。
<
>There is nobody here but you and me.  这儿没有别人,除了你和我。
<>There is nothing but sand.            没有什么东西,除了沙子。

<
>Ok,I have no choice but to let you go.好吧,我没有别的办法只好让你走。
<>I'm doing nothing but exercise.       我没干什么只是在锻炼而已。
<>Who but a fool would do such a thing? 除了傻子外,谁会做这种事呢?
<>Tell me!Nobody but me will know that? 告诉我吧!除了我会知道这种事外。

<>The problem is anything but easy.     这个问题可绝对不容易。
<>Nobody but you could be so selfish.   除了你之外,谁也不会这样自私。
<>Everyone was there but him.           除了他之外,所有的人都在。
<>Nothing but trouble will come of this plan.这个计划只能带来麻烦。

<>I was smuggling nothing but bicycles. 我走私的不是别的,正是自行车。
*我正在走私的除了自行车外,不是别的。*直译---就是转换成英语的逻辑思维
*choice[t)is]选择权n./上等的a. *smuggle[`smΛgl]走私

<>We couldn't do anything but sit there and wait. 考点:but后面不+to.
我们不能做任何事,除了坐在那里外。

<使>Nothing,but nothing will make me change my mind.
没有任何事,绝对没有任何事可以使我改变我的主意。
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but--仅仅/才/只


典型例句: <>He's but a boy.他不过是个孩子。

<
>It took her but a few days to learn it.只不过几天时间她就学会了。

*它花费了她仅仅几天时间就学会了。*直译---就是转换成英语的逻辑思维
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but---
没有...不。


典型例句:

<>Not a man but felt it.没有一个人不感觉到它。<双重否定=肯定>

*but=who...not/which...not=没有...不<but=代词,含有否定>
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but--反对。


典型例句:

<>Not so many buts, please.请别老是反对个每完。

.................................................................................................................
13.连词
是连接词、短语、从句、分句的词。连词主要分为并列连词或从属连词。并列连词用来连接并列关系的词、短语或分句。从属连词用来引导从句。
13.1并列连词

连词

例词

And

和、并且

We enjoy singing and dancing.

我们喜欢唱歌和跳舞。(并列词)

Work hard, and you will pass the exam.

如果你用功,你就会通过考试。(并列句)

or

或者、否则

Mary or I am wrong.玛丽或我是错的。(并列词)

Take the chance, or you will regret it.

抓住这个机会,否则你会后悔的。(并列句)

But

但是、却

He is old, but he is still strong.

他老了,但他依然强壮。

She is clever but careless.

她聪明却粗心。

for

因为

He must be out, for the lights are out.

他一定不在家,灯都关了。

either…or

或...或...

Either you or he is right.

不是你对就是他对.

Either you are mad, or I am.

不是你疯了, 就是我疯了。

neither...nor

既不...也不

He neither smokes nor drinks.李既不吸烟,也不喝酒。

Neither he wanted to go there, nor did I.他不想去那里,我也不想去。

both…and

既……也……

Both my father and mother like swimming. 我父母亲都喜欢游泳。

not only…but also

不仅...而且...

Not only you but also he has become a League member.

不仅你入团了,他也入团了。

Not only does he like sports, but also he likes music.

他不仅喜欢运动,而且喜欢音乐。


注意:
①连词一般只起连接作用,不充当句子成分。

②or, either…or, neither…nor并列主语时,谓语动词的数多与其邻近的主语一致。例如:
Either you or I am right.不是你对就是我对。
③both…and并列主语时,谓语动词用复数。例如:
Both he and I have been to Beijing.他和我都去过北京。

13.2从属连词
从属连词可以用来引导状语从句、名词性从句和定语从句。
⑴引导状语从句的连词分类

类型

连词

时间

when当……时,as一边……一边、当……,while在……期间,after在……后,before在……前,since自从……以来,whenever每当……,as soon as一……就……,till/until直到……

地点

where在……处,wherever无论在……地方

原因

because因为,as由于,since既然,now that既然

结果

So…that/such…that如此……以至于,so that以至于,that以致

目的

So that以便,order that为了

条件

if如果,unless除非,once一旦,so long as只要,so far as就……而言

让步

though/although尽管,ever if/though即使,whatever无论什么,no matter who无论谁,whether…nor无论……还是

方式

as if/as though似乎,as像……那样

比较

as…as与……一样,not so…不如,than比


注意:

①并列连词but不能与从属连词though/although连用,但是though/although可与yet(副词)连用。
例如:Though he is young, (yet) he knows a lot.虽然他年轻,但他懂很多。
②并列连词so不能与从属连词because连用。例如:
I like reading, so I bought some books.
(或I bought some books because I like reading. )我喜欢读书,所以买了一些书。
⑵引导名词性从句的连词分类

分类

连词

连词(不充当成分)

that(无意义),if/whether是否,whether…or not是否,whether…or… 或者……或者

连接代词(作从句中主、宾、表、定语)

who谁、……的人,whom……的人,whoever无论谁,whose谁的what(ever)(无论)什么,which(ever)(无论)哪个

连接副词(作句中的状语)

how(ever)(无论)怎样,when(ever)(无论)何时,why……的原因,where……的地方,wherever无论在哪里

⑶引导定语从句的连词分类:

分类

连词

关系代词(作从句中的主、宾、表、定语)

代人:who, whom, whose, that

代物:which, that, whose

关系副词(作从句中的状语)

when指时间,where指地点,why指原因

连词总结

连词在句子里不能单独做句子成分,也没有重音,在句子中只起连接作用。连词分类很复杂,
这里大体上把连词分并列连词和从属连词两种。
并列连词
并列连词用来连接。并列连词按作用可分为表示转折、因果、选择和联系等四大类。
⑴表联合关系连词
常见的有and, or, but, for, not only…but also, as well as, both…and…, neither…nor…。

①and: 和,又,而,并且,可是,所以
②for: for作连词用时,其意义很多。意思包括:为,对…而言,经历,经过(指时间的距离),
向,由于,给,交换,赞成,对(表示感情、才能等)等。
③not only…but also(but as well)不但……而且……
④as well as也
⑤either…or…: …或…或…;不是……就是……

a:“either…or…”构成的词组作为主语时,谓语动词随其邻近的词,即or后面的词而定。

b.此句型的否定句是全否定。
⑥neither…nor: ……既不……也不……
当此词组作主语时,谓语动词的用法和either…or的用法一致,由nor后面的词而定。
⑦both…and…: 既……又……

⑵转折连词:这类连词常见的有but, while(而), yet, however(然而)。

⑶选择连词

选择连词有:or, or else, either…or…, otherwise

or表示“或”的意思,使用于两者之中选择一个的时候。

一个重要的句型:

祈使句,+ or…=if you don’t…, you’ll… 译为“请……,否则……”。
从属连词:从属连词用来连接各种从句。

⑴连接主语从句、表语从句与宾语从句常用连词有三个:that, if和 whether

⑵引导状语从句的从属连词

①连接时间状语从句的从属连词有:since, until, after, before, when, while,
as, as soon as, whenever, ever since

②连接让步状语从句的从属连词有:although, though, even if, however

③连接原因状语从句的从属连词有:as, because, since, now that

④连接目的状语从句的从属连词有:that, so that, in order that

⑤连接条件状语从句的从属连词有:if, unless, once, in case

⑥连接结果状语从句的从属连词有:so…that, such…that

⑦连接方式状语从句的从属连词有:as, as if(as though)
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not…either=neither

not…anything=nothing表示全部否定;not…everything表示部分否定;
由“money is very important in a way”可知,部分否定的形式符合题意。

as far as = to the degree一直到……(程度);as soon as=at once,
after一……就……; as long as=if ,on condition that假如,如果,只要。
This table is three times as big as that one.
②This table is three times the size of that one.

这张桌子是那张的三倍。

③This table is three times bigger than that one. 这张桌子比那张大3倍。

eventually=in the end, at last最后,终于

This is my treat.=My treat.我请客。

with=in spite of纵然,尽管。

as well as =besides除……之外,还有……;也。

act as=to fulfil the purpose of.
如:A trained dog can act as a guide to a blind person.经过训练的狗能当盲人的向导。

我有很多朋友,其中有几个是商人。

I have many friends, some of whom are businessmen.

I have many friends, of whom some are businessmen.

I have many friends, some of them are businessmen.

I have many friends, and some of them are businessmen.

whatever the cost=whatever the cost is.

unless=if…not.

这里even though=even if即使,尽管。ever since从……; now that=since既然。

even though=even if即使,尽管;as if=as though

好像,似乎。

unless=if not除非;如果不。

or=otherwise; or else“否则”。

Inventor as he is=Although he is an inventor.

How about doing…It soundsgood.

What about doing…表提议,答语可为 It sounds great.

Why not do…It’s a good idea.

Think nothing of it.=Don’t mention it.“不必客气”。

figure on=depend on“指望,期待”。

like that=in that way

assistant=shop assistant售货员

but if he did=but if he did know them.

come to=add up to“总计,合计”。

other than=except

never/not…anything but=nothing but=only

his=the waiter’s

in this/that case=if that happens假如这/那样的话。

be worried sick=be sick with worry极度担心;担心得要命。这是一习语。

Patience is a kind of virtue.(有耐心是一种美德。)

When I saw the exam papers, my mind just went blank. (=I couldn’t remember anything.)

an instant hit=an immediate success.
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20. 连词
连词是一种虚词,它不能独立担任句子成分而只起连接词与词,短语与短语以及句与句的作用。
连词主要可分为两类:并列连词和从属连词。并列连词用来连接平行的词、词组和分句。
如:and, but, or, nor, so, therefore, yet, however, for, hence, as well as,
both…and, not only…but also, either…or, neither…nor, (and)then等等。

20.1 并列连词与并列结构
并列连词引导两个并列的句子。
1)and 与or
判断改错:
(错) They sat down and talk about something.
(错) They started to dance and sang.
(错) I saw two men sitting behind and whisper there.
(对) They sat down and talked about something.
(对) They started to dance and sing.
(对)I saw two men sitting behind and whispering there.

解析:
第一句: and 连接两个并列的谓语,所以 talk 应改为 talked。
第二句:and 连接两个并列的动词不定式,第二个不定式往往省略to,因此sang 应改为 sing。
第三句:and 连接感观动词saw 后面的用作的宾补的两个并列分词结构,
因此whisper应改为whispering。
注意:and 还可以和祈使句或名词词组连用表示条件。(or也有此用法)

Make up your mind, and you'll get the chance.
= If you make up your mind, you'll get the chance.
One more effort, and you'll succeed.
= If you make one more effort, you'll succeed.

2)both …and 两者都
She plays (both) the piano and the guitar.

3)not only…but (also), as well as不但…而且)
She plays not only the piano, but (also) the guitar.

注意: not only… but also 关联两个分句时,一个分句因有否定词not 而必须倒装。
Not only does he like reading stories, but also he can even write some.

4)neithe…nor 意思为"既不……也不……"谓语动词采用就近原则,与nor后的词保持一致。
Neither you nor he is to blame.

20.2 比较and和or
1) 并列结构中,or通常用于否定句,and用于肯定句。

2) 但有时and 也可用于否定句。请注意其不同特点:
There is no air or water in the moon.
There is no air and no water on the moon.
在否定中并列结构用or 连接,但含有两个否定词的句子实际被看作是肯定结构,因此要用and。

典型例题
---I don't like chicken ___ fish.
---I don't like chicken, ___ I like fish very much.
A. and; and B. and; butC. or; butD. or;and
答案C。否定句中表并列用or, but 表转折。

判断改错:
(错) We will die without air and water.
(错) We can't live without air or water.
(对) We will die without air or water.
(对) We can't live without air and water.

20.3 表示选择的并列结构
1) or 意思为"否则"。
I must work hard, or I'll fail in the exam.

2) either…or 意思为"或者……或者……"。注意谓语动词采用就近原则。
Either you or I am right.

20.4 表示转折或对比
1) but表示转折,while表示对比。
Some people love cats, while others hate them.
典型例题 
--- Would you like to come to dinner tonight?
--- I'd like to, ___ I'm too busy.
A. and B. so C. as D. but
答案D。but与前面形成转折,符合语意。而表并列的and,结果的so,原因的as都不符合句意。
2) not…but… 意思为"不是……而是……"
not 和but 后面的用词要遵循一致原则。
They were not the bones of an animal, but (the bones) of a human being.

20.5 表原因关系
1) for
判断改错:
(错) For he is ill, he is absent today.
(对) He is absent today, for he is ill.
for是并列连词,不能置于含两个并列分句的句子的句首,只能将其放在两个分句中间。

2) so, therefore
He hurt his leg, so he couldn't play in the game.

注意:
a. 两个并列连词不能连用,但therefore, then, yet.可以和并列连词连用。
You can watch TV, and or you can go to bed.
He hurt his leg, and so / and therefore he couldn't play in the game.

b. although… yet…,但although不与 but连用。
(错)Although he was weak, but he tried his best to do the work..
(对)Although he was weak, yet he tried his best to do the work.

20.6 比较so和 such
其规律由so与such的不同词性决定。such 是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so是副词,
只能修饰形容词或副
词。so 还可与表示数量的形容词many,few,much, little连用,形成固定搭配。

so + adj.such + a(n) + n.
so + adj. + a(n) + n.such + n. (pl.)
so + adj. + n. (pl.) such +n. (pl.)
so + adj. + n. [不可数]such +n. [不可数]

so foolish such a fool
so nice a flower such a nice flower
so many/ few flowers such nice flowers
so much/little money.such rapid progress
so many people such a lot of people
so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of 虽相当于 many,但 a lot of 为名词性的,只能用such搭配。
so…that与such…that之间的转换既为 so与such之间的转换。

.....加载中... )αэΛθηδ∫
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