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常用表 名词 数词 代词 动词 副词 形容词 介词 连词 冠词 感叹词 疑问词 其它

疑问词 著作 中国大陆 ZHAOFU

◎详见页底 : 高考近年热衷点-1,2,3 *已阅读 16666
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以W-开头的疑问词8个:
what什么/which哪位,哪个/whose的/when何时/where/why为什么/who/whom/how如何
W-开头的疑问词组: what/which/whose...+名词 如 where+else/what else/which one/who else

以H-开头的疑问词1个: how
H-开头的疑问词组
:how +形容词/副词 如: how old;how much...*以上8w1h在赵氏52英语教材P29.
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详分为3类:

疑问代词:what,who,Which,whose,whom
疑问副词:when,where,why,how
疑问形容词:what(which,whose)+名词

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疑问词主要用于特殊疑问句【规则
疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。

典型例句 How many shows in a day?
英语思维: 多少降雪在1天里? 主+谓+时\状
*句子必须会直译,学会直译再翻译.
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疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。

中式:You can see them where else?你能见到他们在别的什么地方吗?
原则:先写-结果;=先写:主+谓+宾;后写:其他;然后根据上面2个必须转换成英语

英式:
Where else can you see them?*疑问词组=where+else在他处
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动词引导的一般疑问句——用yes或no回答,用升调*这叫'半问半答':记忆法
特殊疑问句——用肯定或否定句回答,用降调*这叫'全问全答':记忆法
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疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。

1.what,who,which对主语提问:

What is in your pocket?你口袋里有什么? *符合上面2个必须,中=英
回答:
>There is an egg in it.在口袋里有1个蛋。
>An egg is(in it). 一个蛋(在里面)。

What's in the room? 屋子里有什么?*符合上面2个必须,中=英
回答:
>There are a lot of chairs in it.
>=A 1ot of chairs are in it.有许多椅子.*根据实际情况单复数回答均可。

>Who broke the window?谁打破了窗户?
回答: >Tom did. Tom打破的。
>Which is Tom's?哪个是汤姆的?
回答: >This is his.这是他的。
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疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。
2.whose对定语提问:
>Whose father died two years ago?两年前谁的父亲死了 *符合上面2个必须,中=英
回答:>His father died two years ago?

中式:These are whose book?这些是谁的书?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
Whose books are these?*用"金字塔"第1层操作
回答 >They are Li Tom's.它们是TOM的。

* what,which,whose后面跟名词时起形容词作用。
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*解析 what作形容词时可用于指人,但不多见:
>What students are you talking about?你们在谈论哪些学生?
*改用:
Which students are you talking about? 较为常见

>What poet[`pouit] do you like best?你最喜欢哪一位诗人?
>What people have influenced you most in your life? 影响influence[`influэns]vt.n.
在你的生活中,什么人对你的影响最深?

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疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。
3.对宾语提问
中式:You bought what?你买了什么?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
What did you buy? 回答<动> I bought a bike.我买了辆自行车。

中式:He wants which?他想要哪一个?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
Which does he want? *用"金字塔"第2层操作
回答:>He wants the green one.他想要那个绿色的。

中式:You like what sports?你喜欢什么运动?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
What sports do you like? *用"金字塔"第2层操作
回答:>I like basketball.我喜欢篮球。

中式:You took which picture?你拍了哪张照片?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:W
hich picture did you take?*用"金字塔"第2层操作
回答:> I took the one on the right.
英语思维:我拍的那一张是右边的。先写:主+谓+宾 *句子必须会直译,学会直译再翻译.
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疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。
4.对表语提问
中式:This is what 这是什么?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
What is this?*用"金字塔"第1层操作
回答>It's a bench.这是1条长凳。

中式:You are what 你是干什么的?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
What are you?*用"金字塔"第1层操作
回答>I'm a teacher.我是个老师。

What is+人?此句型是问人的职业,一般译为“是干什么的?”

中式:That woman is who?那个女人是谁?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
Who is that woman?*用"金字塔"第1层操作
回答<>She is my mother.她是我妈妈。(关系)
or <> She is Mary. 她是Mary。(姓名)
* who是whom的主格,对宾语提问用whom,但在口语中who可以代替whom来回答。
* Who is+人?询问某人的姓名或与人的关系;而 What is +人?是询问人的职业,两者是不同的。

中式:That umbrella is whose?那伞是谁的?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
Whose is that umbrella?*用"金字塔"第1层操作
回答<>It is my mother's.她是我妈妈的.
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疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。
5.对状语提问用when,where,why,how, *它们不能对主语提问

中式:You when were born?你何时出生?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
When were you born?*用"金字塔"第1层操作
回答:>I was born on June 5,1999. 我是1999年6月5日出生的。<有几号时用on>
=on June 5,1999. 1999年6月5日。<只回答出时间也可以>

中式:You when will go to HK?你何时去HK?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
When will you go to HK?*用"金字塔"第3层操作
回答:>I'll go there next year.我明年去那儿.
英语思维:我将去那里在明年。先写:主+谓,再写: 地\状 & 时\状 *句子必须会直译。

*口语问答 when=什么时候:
When do you get up?你平常什么时候起床?7am.早晨7点。

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☆语法上when问的是具体时间,不能和完成时连用。
×When have you been here?
>How long have you been here?你呆在这里有多久了?*用"金字塔"第3层操作
中式:You have been here How long? *以符合下面2个必须为条件去转换成英语↑
英语思维:你一直在这儿多久了?先写:主+谓,再写: 地\状 & 时\状 *句子必须会直译。
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疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。
中式:You when came here?你何时来这里的?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
When did you come here?*用"金字塔"第2层操作
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中式:You live where?你住在哪儿?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
Where do you live?*用"金字塔"第2层操作
回答:>I live in Beijing.*也可以简略回答出地点
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中式:You are going where?你要去哪儿?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
Where are you going?*用"金字塔"第1层操作
回答:>I'm going to HK. *也可以简略回答出地点

*口语问答 where=什么地方:
Where do you live?你住在哪儿?In London,住在伦敦。

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中式:You why are late?你为什么迟到?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
Why are you late?*用"金字塔"第1层操作
回答:>Because I met the accident. *只能用because引导的原因状语从句回答。
英=中:因为我遇上了车祸. 先写:主+谓+宾 *句子必须会直译
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中式:You why didn't see the movie 你为什么不去看那部电影
英式:
Why are you late?*用"金字塔"第1层操作——中式转换成英式
回答:>Because I had seen it before. *只能用because引导的原因状语从句回答。
英=中:因为我已经看过了. 先写:主+谓+宾 *句子必须会直译

*口语问答 why=为什么:
Why was he late?他为什么迟到了?He missed the bus.他没赶上公共汽车。

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中式:You how go to HK 你如何去HK *问方式 *以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
How do you go to HK?*用"金字塔"第2层操作——中转
回答:>I go to HK by air.我乘飞机去HK.
英=中: 我去HK乘飞机. 先写:主+谓 *句子必须会直译
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中式:You are how?你身体好吗?*问健康 *以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
How are you?*用"金字塔"第1层操作——中转
回答:>I'm fine. Thank you!我很好,谢谢你!
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中式:The weather is how today?今天天气如何?*以符合上面2个必须为条件去转换成英语
英式:
How is the weather today?*用"金字塔"第1层操作——中转
回答:>It's cloudy. 今天多云。
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中式:The weather is like what today?今天天气如何?*how=like what
英式:
What is the weather like today?*用"金字塔"第1层操作——中转
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疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。

以下:先写中文再去转换成英语,记住——
中英语序多数不变原理!

1.who问人物 如 Who is she?              2.whose谁的<>Whose new car is this?
3.which问物 如 Which one is yours?      4.where地点<>Where is the zoo?
5.why为什么 如 Why are you here?        6.what什么 <>What is this?
7.how old问年龄How old are you?         8.how much数量不可数的<>How much is it?
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9.how often问频率<动>How often do you go to the park?
10.how many问数量可数的<>How many people are there in your family?
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◎解析易混的4组疑问词
who/which;what/which; what/how much;when/what time 有时两者可互换,有时则不可。
1. who / which
例:____the women’s a doctor? (答:B)       A. What ;B. Which of ;C. Who of; D. Both

*选C是错误的,who是指不确定的人;which指确定的的'哪一位'。

* Whowhat在现代英语中不与of连用。如:
>Who is your favourite teacher ?谁是你最喜欢的老师?
>Who is to blame? 该责备谁呢?*[bleim]vt.n.
>Which of the three boys is the tallest? *不能说:Who of the three boys…?
这3个男孩中,哪个个儿最高?
>Which of you has got a computer? *不能说:Who of you ?
你们之中谁有电脑?
>Which of these coats is yours? *不能说:What of these ?
这些外衣,哪一件是你的?
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*当这类词作代词用(后面不跟名词)时,指人用who,而不用which。如:
>Who wonTom or Brown?谁赢了—汤姆还是布朗?*不能说:Which won...
>Who are you going out withTom or Mary?你跟谁约会—是汤姆还是玛丽?
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2.. what \ which

which是在已知范围内进行选择,可跟of短语;
what是在未知范围内进行选择不可跟of短语。如:
>Which(of the animals)is bigger,an elephant or a horse?*有范围
>What do you want to read? *无范围
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>What book do you like best?
Which book do you kike best? 区别如下:
* 从不确定中选择用what: What book do you like best?你最喜欢读什么书?
* 从确定中选择用 whichWhich book do you like best?你最喜欢哪一本书?
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疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。
再如:
>What class do you like best?你最喜欢上什么课?
>Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia?哪个国家最大,是加拿大还是澳大利亚?
>What shoes are you going to buy?你要买什么鞋?
>Which shoes are you going to buy, the red ones or the blue ones?你要买哪双鞋,是红的还是蓝的?
* 有时候人们使用模糊语言,在现代英语中通用 which / what 如:
>Which/What is the hottest city in the world?哪些城市是世界上最热的城市?
>Which/What train did you come on?你是乘哪次火车来的?
>Which/What people have influenced you most in your life? influence影响[`influэns]vt.n.
在你的生活中,什么人对你的影响最深?
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疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。
>
What day is it today?
今天是星期几?
>What season do you like best?你最喜欢哪一个季节?
>What time is it, please?现在几点了?
>What class are you in?你在哪个班级?
>What row are you in?你坐在哪一排?
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小结:疑問詞what\which置於句首=名詞\形容詞。
*問職業=名詞 >What(代名詞) are you? =>What do you do?=>What is your job?
*問事物=名詞 >What(代名詞) is this book?
>Which(代名詞) of you can answer my question?你們當中哪一個能回答我的問題?
*問特征=形容词 What(形容詞)book is this?
>What(形容詞) color do you like?
*how不能修饰名词
>Which(形容詞) book is yours (your book)?哪一本書是你的?
=Which(代名詞) is your book? <判断句> 你的書是哪一本呢?

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3. what \ how much

What is the population of Germany?句中What含义是“多少”,不用how much
*询问不可数名词数量时不用how much,而用what. 其含义相当于how much
*问price,speed,depth[depθ]厚度width[widθ]宽度height[hait]高度weight[weit]重量等数量时,用what如:
>What’s the temperature?温度有多高?*be=有;不用have.
>What’s the speed?速度有多快?
>What’s the price?多少钱?
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*what 作形容词=how much,如:
>What cash has he got? 他有多少钱? *[kæ]现金 *当主语占有某实物时,才用have.
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疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。
*what
cost, weigh, matter, benefit 等词连用=副词,如:
>What does a new evening dress cost?买1件新的晚礼服要花多少钱?
>What does the pig weigh?这头猪有多少重?
>What does it matter?这有多少关系?
>What does it benefit him?这对他有多少好处?*[`benifit]益处vt.vi.n.
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*问可数名词表示其价格时,使用how much
>How much is that dress?这件衣服多少钱?
>How much are eggs today?今天的鸡蛋多少钱?
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4. when何时 \ what time几点钟

*以下2句中文意思相同,但回答不同:
>When did you see her? = > What time did you see her?
* when
引导的疑问句回答时可用yesterday; the day before yesterday; yesterday morning 等来
回答,不必指出具体的时间点。
* what time是介词短语at what time的省略形式, at 在口语中常被省略。回答须说出具体的时间
点,如 at two o’clock; at five o’clock 等。
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*解析两者互换的场合:
* 当问钟点时,2者可换用 如:
>When/What time do you go to work?你什么时候上班?
— I usually go to work at seven.
我通常七点上班。
>When/what time did the meeting begin会议什么时候开始的?—At eight. 八点钟。
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*解析两者不互换的场合:
* 当问某事,在某天的具体时间里进行时,只用what time 如:
>What time did you get to the park last Sunday?上星期日你们什么时候到的公园?
— At about nine. 大约在九点钟。
>What time did you call this morning?今天上午你什么时候打电话的?
I called at ten this morning. 今天上午10点钟我打了电话。
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*解析两者不互换的场合:
*当问日期,月份或年份的时候,只能用when 如:
>When were you born?你出生于何时?I was born on March 9, 1999. 我生于1999年3月9日.................................................................................
小结:wh-中的5个疑问词
*主格who的宾格=whom,用于人;所有格‘的’whose=代词or形容词;
*主格
/宾格what=代词or形容词,用于物or(不多见);
*主格
/宾格which=代词or形容词,用于or物;
*上述单\复数形式相同。
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疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。
*解析whowhosewhichwhat作主语时,接肯定语意:

>Who pays the bills?谁付帐?*肯定动词形式
>Whose/Which horse won谁的/哪匹马赢了?同上
>What happened? 出了什么事?
>What went wrong
?出了什么毛病?
>Who keeps the keys?谁保管那些钥匙?
>Who took my gun?谁拿了我的枪?

>Whose car broke down?谁的车子发生了故障?
>
Which pigeon arrived first?哪一只鸽子先到达的?
>
Which of them is the eldest?他们中谁的年龄最大?
>What caused the explosion?是什么引起爆炸的?
>What makes that noise?什么发出的噪音?
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*解析whowhose+be+名词\人称代词时,要用疑问形式:
疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。

>Who are you?你是谁?
>Whose is this?这是谁的?
>What is that noise?那噪音是怎么回事?

>what is he? 他从事什么职业?
>What is his father?他父亲是干什么的?
>He is a tailor.他是个裁缝。

>Who are these boys?这些男孩是谁?
>Whose(books)are these?这些(书)是谁的?
>What kind of tree is that?那是哪种树?
>What bird is that?那是什么鸟?
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*解析whowhose等作动词的宾语时,整句要用疑问形式:

>Who did you see?你见到谁了?
>
Whom did the committee appoint?委员会指定了谁?*很正式的英语whom不能切换为who.
>
Whose umbrella did you borrow?你借了谁的雨伞?
>What did he say?他说了什么?

>Which hand do you use?你用哪一只手?
>
Which of these dates would you prefer?这几个日期你喜欢哪一个?
>
What paper do you read?你经常看什么报纸?
>
What did they eat?他们吃了什么?
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*解析whowhose等作介词的宾语时,整句要用疑问形式:
>
With whom did you go?你和谁一起去的?
* 有介词时,whom不能切换为who,在正规英语中用介词+whom结构:
>
To whom were you speaking?你刚才在跟谁说话?
* 在日常口语中人们常把介词置于句末。这时将
whom变成who
>
Who did you go with
>
Who were you speaking to
...............................................................................
* 正规英语中人们用介词+which/what结构:
>To which address did you send it?你把东西寄到哪个地址去了?
>
On what do you base your theory? 你的理论依据是什么?
* 在非正规英语中我们将介词置于句末:
>
Which address did you send it to
>
What do you base your theory on*[beis]vt.依据 *[`θi:эri]n.理论
>
What country do you come from?你是哪国人?
.......................................
* whatfor?=为什么? 参考中式:for what?
>What did you do that for
=>
Why did you do that?你为什么做那事?
.....................................................
* whatbelike参考中式:be是like像what什么? 用于物:
>What was the exam like这次考试怎么样?
It was very difficult
难极了。
>
What was the weather like天气怎么样
It was very windy风很大。
>
What's the food like in your hostel?你们学生公寓的伙食怎么样?
It's quite good.还不错。
...............................................................................
* whatbelike参考中式:be是like像what什么样? 用于人:
>What's he like?他是一位什么样的人呢?*
用于人时,指外表,性格与品质 答:
>
He's a very talkativefriendly man.他是一个非常健谈,和善的人。

* whatlook like参考中式:look看上去like像what什么样? 用于人:
>
What does he look like他看上去是一位什么样的人呢?*用于人指外表像谁(什么):
>He'short and fat and wears glasses.他个子不高,很胖,戴眼镜。
>What does she look like?她长什么样儿?
She is tall and glamorous.She looks like a film star.
她个子很高,很有魅力,看上去像个电影明星。

>What does it look like它看上去什么样?
It's black and shiny.It looks like coal它黑而亮,看上去像煤。
................................................................................


*解析whathow用于度量的提问:
如:what+名词age,depth,height,length,width...;
做同义句转换时可用口语形式:
how+形容词old,deep,high,tall,long,wide...结构切换。

*需要对方准确回答时用:
what+名词size\weight...?结构提问;
:how+形容词big\heavy...?提问=口语形式,如:
>
What age are you?你多大年龄?*需要对方准确回答
=
What is your age
=
How old are you*同义句转换时可用口语形式

>What height is he?他有多高?*需要对方准确回答
=
What is his height
=
How tall is he*同义句转换时可用口语形式

>
What is the weight of the parcel? 包裹有多重?
=How heavy is it?
*同义句转换时可用口语形式
>What size do you take in shoes? 你穿多大号的鞋?
...............................................................................

*解析whichwhat用于物的比较

>What()will you have to drink?你想喝点什么?
>There is gin,whisky and sherrywhich() will you have?<>
我们这里有杜松子酒,威士忌酒以及雪利酒,您想要哪一种?
>
What()does it cost to get to Scotland到苏格兰去要花多少钱?
It depends on how you go.这要看你怎么走
>Which(way)is the cheapest?哪一种走法最省钱
=
Which is the cheapest(way)


>
I've seen the play and the film.我看了戏剧和电影。
What()did you think of them你觉得它们怎么样
>Which(of them)did you like best
?你最喜欢哪一个?
..................................................

*解析whichwho用于指人的比较
>Who do you want to speak to你想找谁谈?
I want to speak to Mr Smith我想找史密斯先生谈。
>
We have two Smiths here.我们这里有两位姓史密斯的。
>Which
of them do you want
?你要找的是哪一位?

疑问代词which指人时,不能单独作动词的主语:
>
Which of you knows the formula?[`f ):mjulэ]n.公式
你们谁知道这个公式?考点:of you是必要的
=Who knows the formula?=同义句
..............................................................
>
Which poet(of all the poets)do you like best? *暗含轻微限定
(在所有的诗人当中)你最喜欢哪一位诗人?
what代替which更合乎逻辑,但是通常避免使用形容词what来指人。如:

>What people have influenced you most in your life? 影响influence[`influэns]
在你的生活中,什么人对你的影响最深?

...............................................................................

小结 h-中的(1个)疑问词how=怎么样?
*用作方式状语的直接提问:
>How did you come?你是怎么来的?I came by plane.我是乘飞机来的。
>How do you start the engine?怎样启动发动机?You press the button.按这个按钮。

*用how+形容词提问表语中的or物:
>How strong are you
?你有多大劲儿?*be=有;*当主语占有某实物时,才用have.
>How important is this letter?这封信的重要性有多大?


*用how+much\many提问宾语状语时间,程度...:
>How much(money)do you want?你需要多少钱?
>How many(pictures)did you buy?你买了多少幅(画)?
..............................
*用how+副词提问状语时间,程度...:

>How fast does he drive?他开得有多快?
>How often do you go abroad?你多长时间出一次国?
>How badly was he hurt?他伤得怎么样?
>How soon can you come?你多快能赶来?

*提问表语\宾语为静态语义;提问状语为动态语义;但用同一形式=提问结果。
.....................................................
疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词。
....................................................
注意
>How is she?她身体怎么样? *询问健康状况
>What is she like?她长得什么样? *询问外貌
初识时
How do you do?您好!*问
How do you do?您好!*答。这只是一句问候语而不是真的提出一个问题
>How are you?你身体好吗?*问(这是在提出一个问题) *答:>I'm fine.>Thank you.

-----------------------------*高考近年热衷点-1--------------------------

解析ever位于who,what,where,why,when,how之后,表示强调
:
*ever的含义=on earth究竟\到底;in the world究竟.

>Where ever have you been?你究竟到哪儿去了?*用be写结果
>I've been looking for you everywhere!我在到处找你!

>Who ever told you I'd lend you the money到底是谁告诉你我会借你钱的?
>I've no money at all!我一点钱也没有!

...............................................
>Who ever are you?你究竟是谁?*大概是个闯入者
>Who ever left the door open?到底是谁没关门?*哪个蠢人
>Where ever have you put my briefcase?你究竟把我的公文包放到哪儿去了?*哪也没有
>When ever did you leave home?你到底是什么时候离开家的?*一定很早
>How ever did he escape unhurt?他究竟是怎么逃出来还没受伤的?*车完全撞坏

...............................................................................

>Why ever did you wash it in boiling water?你究竟为什么把它放在开水里洗?*沮丧
>What ever are you doing in my car?你究竟在我的车里搞什么名堂?*不高兴
.............................................
*解析
why ever not?与 what ever for?的用法 如:

>You mustn't wear anything green.你不准穿任何绿色的衣服。
Why ever not?究竟为什么呢? *不明白原因
>Bring a knife to class tomorrow.明天上课带一把刀子来。

What ever for?究竟干什么用?*需要一把刀做什么
................................................................................
*句中的ever表示强调说话人惊奇,惊讶,愤怒,气恼和沮丧,并非必不可少的
*ever=
on earth究竟,到底;in the world究竟 如:
(疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词)

>Where on earth can she be?她究竟在哪儿呢?
参考52英语中式:She can be on earth where? *疑问词总是位于前面 如:Where on earth.
>What on earth have you done to your hair?你怎么把头发弄成这个样子?
>What on earth will you get up to next?你下一步究竟要耍什么花样?
>Where on earth did you spring from?你是打哪儿冒出来的? *spring春天n.突然冒出vi.

>
What can I do for you in the world?我究竟能为你做些什么呢?
>
What in the world do you mean?你的意思究竟是什么呢?

>To be of use in the world is the only way to be happy.为善最乐。

*这样的句子总是用强调的口气表达说话人的思想感情。
.................................................................................

小结 疑问词+ever=3种从句:1.让步状语从句;2.主语从句;3.宾语从句
*疑问代词whatever\whichever\whoever\宾格whomever+ever=无论,不管
*疑问副词wherever\whenever\however+ever=无论,不管
.....................................................
(疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词)

1.引导让步状语从句
whatever主语(*又是让步状语从句引导词)=no matter+what
,如:

Whatever happened,he wouldn't say a word.不管什么事情发生,他不会说一个字。
=No matter what happened,he wouldn't say a word.译文同上*no matter=引导词*what=主语
............................................................................
◇whoever主语(*又是让步状语从句引导词)=no matter+who,如:

Whoever says so,it is wrong.不管谁怎么说,那也是不对的。
=No matter who says so,it is wrong.译文同上。*no matter+who(主语)=(合成)引导词
............................................................................
whichever语(和名词一起作take的宾语,又是让步状语从句引导词)=no matter+which如:

Whichever dictionary you(may)take,you will have to pay at least 20 dollars.
无论你买哪本词典,最终你将不得不支付20美元。
=No matter which dictionary you(may)take,you will have to pay at least 20 dollars.
译文同上。*no matter+which dictionary(疑问词组在从句中作take宾语)=(合成)引导词

(疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词)
参考中式52英语-1:You(may)take which dictionary ,you will have to pay...
参考
中式52英语-2:=No matter you(may)take which dictionary ,you will have to pay...

*这类从句用一般现在时表将来,从句中也常用情态动词 may\might.
............................................................................
wherever语(作让步状语从句引导词)=no matter+where,如:

Wherever he goes(may go),I'll follow him.无论他走到哪儿,我将会跟随著他。
=No matter where he goes(may go),I'll follow him.
译文同上。 *no matter+ where(疑问词作从句中的地点状语)=(合成)引导词
(疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词)
参考中式52英语-1:He goes(may go) wherever, I'll follow him.
参考
中式52英语-2:
=No matter he goes(may go) where,I'll follow him.
............................................................................
whenever=no matter+when,如:

Whenever I visited him,he was always busy working.每当我去看他时,他总是忙于工作.
=No matter when I visited him,he was always busy working.
............................................................................
however=no matter+how,如:
However late he is,his mother will wait for him to have dinner together.
无论多么晚,他的妈妈都会等他一起吃晚餐。
=No matter how late he is,his mother will wait for him to have dinner together.

(疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词)
参考中式52英语-1:
He is however late,his mother will wait for him to have dinner together.

参考
中式52英语-2:

H
e's no matter how late,his mother will wait for him to have dinner together.
..............................................................................
2 .引导主语从句whoever =anyone who,如:
>Whoever smokes here will be punished.*punish[`pΛni]罚,惩罚
此处有吸烟者将被处罚。

>Whichever he likes will be given to him.
他喜欢哪个都可以给予他。
参考中式52英语-2:He likes whichever will be given to him.
...............................................................................
3.引导宾语从句
whatever =anything that,如:
>Beggars will eat whatever they are given.乞丐们会去吃被给予他们的任何食物。
参考中式52英语:Beggars will eat they are given whatever.*beggar[`begэ]

whoever 代替 whomever,如:
>You may invite whomever you like.你可以邀请你喜欢的任何人。
参考中式52英语-2:You may invite you like whomever.
=You may invite whoever you like.
..............................................................................

*要点-1:引导名词性从句的(主\宾语从句),不能换成不确定性的'no matter+疑问词'形式;
*要点-2:whenever,wherever不能引导名词性从句;
*要点-3:名词性从句引导名词必须是确定性的词;
*要点-4:
however作连接副词时可引导名词性从句,如:

>I'll give you however much money you need.你无论需要多数钱我都会给你。
参考中式52英语:I'll give you,you need however much money.
*此时 however不能改成 no matter how.

..............................................................................

深入解析:no matter不管,无论=引导词,其后常接what,which,who,whom,where,whose,
when,how等,用来引导让步状语从句。从句既可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后,如:
................................................

1. no matter what无论什么,what作从句中的主语,如:
No matter what happens,you should stay with me
.无论发生什么事情,你都应该和我在一起。
..............................................................................
2. no matter what无论什么,what作从句中的定语,如:
No matter what problems you have, come to me for help.
你不管有什么问题,来找我帮忙好了。
参考中式52英语:You have no matter what problems,come to me for help.
(疑问词或疑问词组"必须"置于句首,他们的后面"必须"有动词)
...................................................
3.no matter which无论哪一个,which作从句中的定语,如:
No matter which method you have been using,today you must do as I tell you.
不管你一直使用什么方法,今天你必须按我说的做.*method[`meθэd]n.方法,条理
参考中式52英语:
You have been using no matter which method,today you must do as I tell you.
...........................................
4.no matter who无论谁,who在从句中作主语,如:
No matter who does it, he should do it well.无论谁来做这件事,他都应该把它做好。

No matter who it is, I don't want to see him.不管是谁,我都不想见.
参考中式52英语:It is no matter who,I don't want to see him.
..............................................................................
5.no matter whom无论谁,whom在从句中作宾语,如:
No matter whom you like,it is none of my business.不管你喜欢谁,都不关我的事。
参考中式52英语:You like no matter whom,it is none of my business.
.................................................
6.no matter whose无论谁的,whose在从句中作定语,如:
No matter whose bag it is,it will be kept until the owner returns.
不管这是谁的包,都应该保存到它的主人回来。
参考中式52英语:It is no matter whose bag,it will be kept until the owner returns.
..............................................................................
7.no matter when无论什么时候,no matter where无论哪里,when和where分别在从句中作
时间状语和地点状语,如:
No matter when you come,you'll be welcome.无论你什么时候来都是受欢迎的。
参考中式52英语:You come no matter when,you'll be welcome.

No matter where you work,you can always find time to study.
不管你在哪里工作,你都能找到时间去学习。
参考中式52英语:You work no matter where,you can always find time to study.
..............................................................................
8.no matter how无论怎样,无论多么,how可修饰形容词,副词或动词,在从句中作状语,如:
No matter how difficult the problem is,I'll work it out.
无论这道习题有多么难,我都要把它做出来。
参考中式52英语:The problem is no matter how difficult,I'll work it out.

No matter how fast he runs,he can't catch up with me.不管他跑得多快,他都追不上我。
参考中式52英语:He runs no matter how fast,he can't catch up with me.

I have to get the car fixed no matter how much it costs.无论多贵我都必须把车修好。
参考中式52英语:I have to get<*使役5种> the car fixed it costs no matter how much.
................................................................................

对等解析
:
强调式what,which,who,when,where,how 分别相当于 whatever,whichever,
whoever,whenever,wherever,however
例如:
>What(ever)are you doing?你(到底)在干什么?
>Which(ever)do you want to buy?你(究竟)要买哪一个?
>Who(ever)told you such a foolish story?(究竟)是谁讲给你这么蠢的事?
>When(ever)can I enjoy a long vacation?(究竟)什么时候才能给我放个长假呢?
>Where(ever)did you leave your dictionary?你(究竟)把词典放哪儿了?
>How(ever)did you collect so much money?你(到底)是怎样筹到这么多钱的?

----------------------------*高考近年热衷点-2--------------------------

解析:who,what,which,when,where,why+不定式,作主-宾-表语。
不定式的3种形式:肯 to+V;否 not+to+V;疑 8W1H(疑问词)+to+V;

1.疑问词+不定式 作主语
>When and where to build a new factory is not decided yet.何时,在哪建新厂,还没有决定。
>How to begin is the problem.怎么开始是个问题。

>Choosing what to eat is no longer as easy as it once was.
选择吃什么,已经不像以前那么简单了。
>How to describe people is today's topic.如何描述人物是今天的话题。

>How to give advice in English is what I am trying to learn
我正在努力学习如何用英语提建议。*what引导的表语从句=动态句
..............................................................................

2.疑问词+不定式宾语
>Last summer I took a course on how to make dresses.去年夏天我参加了1个服装制作班。
>No one told him what to do.没有人告诉他该做什么。
动>
Have you decided when to leave?
你决定什么时候动身?
*中英语序多数不变原理:
We我们have to要start开somewhere头if如果we want要to去learn学how如何to去write写plays剧本.
我们要学习写剧本,总得有个开头。
.....................

3.疑问词+不定式表语
>The difficulty is how to cross the river.困难在于如何渡过河。
>The question is where to go.问题是要到哪儿去。
>My question is where to find the answer.我的问题是在哪里能找到答案。
...........................
4.疑问词+不定式介词的宾语
>We had better learn to make the right choices about what and how we eat.
我们最好能学会正确选择吃什么,怎么吃。

>When you are trying to advise someone about what to do or what not to do,
you can use should\ought to or should not\ought not to.

当你想要建议某人做什么或者不做什么时,
你可以用should\ought to或者should not\ought not to.
.....................
5.疑问词+不定式状语
>I am not sure how to behave at the dinner table.
=I am not sure how I should behave at the dinner table
.对餐桌礼仪,我心中没底儿。
*疑问词+不定式状语时,疑问代词须接及物动词或相当于及物动词的短语 who,which除外.
...............................................................................
*
解析who,which例题: ×I don't know what to talk. *talk后必须跟about.
>I don't know what to talk about.
可以说:We haven't decided who\which to go.我们还没定谁(哪个)去.*to=who\which=go的主语.
...............................................................................
*解析这种结构中的疑问副词可接不及物动词;若接及物动词,要有动词的宾语。
>I don't know how to talk.我不知如何谈。
>I wonder if you could tell me how to do it.*do后必须跟宾语.
不知您能否告诉我如何去做这件事。(不能说: ... how to do.)
...............................................................................

小结:疑问词+不定式动词question word+to-infinitive.
疑问代词5个=who, whom, what, which, whose.
疑问副词4个=when, where, how, why.
连接词1个=是否whether也适用
主要功用5种 如:
1.当主语,
*When to hold the meeting has not yet been decided.什么时候召开会议还没有被决定。
*Where to live is a problem.住在哪儿是个问题。
*How to cope with the rising cost of living becomes a daily discussion topic.
如何对付增长的生活费成为一个每日的讨论题目[`t ) pik]。*cope[koup]对付(+with)
.........
2.当宾语,
*We must know what to say at a meeting.我们必须清楚在会议上说什么?
*He could not tell whom to trust.他没有说出去信任谁?
*Do you know how to play bridge?你知道如何玩桥牌吗?
.........
3.当表语,
*The problem is where to find the financial aid.问题是在哪里找到资助。
[fai`nænэl]资金的[eid]援助
The question is who to elect.问题是选举谁!*选举[i`lekt]
..............
4.当名词同位语,
>He had no idea which book to read first.他不知道先读哪一本书好
>Do you have a rough impression how to do it
?如何做它你有个初步的印记吗?
*rough[rΛf]a.初步的.[im`pre∫эn]n.印记
..............
5.当宾语补足语,
Tom is not sure whose to choose.Tom不知道选择谁?
Mary and Tom are not certain whether to get married or not.Mary和Tom不肯定是否结婚.
................................................................................
*适用于'疑问词+不定式动词'的10多个动词包括:
know, see, decide,tell, ask, consider[kэn`sidэ]细想, discover[dis`kΛvэ]发现,
explain[iks`plein]说明, forget,guess, hear,learn, remember,understand,think,
wonder,imagine[i`mæd3in]猜想, inquire[in`kwaiэ]询问
等。
................................................................................
*解析这一结构当宾语时,它的作用等于名词分句,如:
I could not decide which dictionary[`dikэneri] to buy. *解密to=主语+情态动词
I could not decide which dictionary I should buy.我不能决定该买哪本词典
Tom did not know where to find such a good teacher. *to=+
Tom did not know where he could find such a good teacher
.Tom不知道去哪找这样的好老师.
................................................................................
*解析动词ask, show, tell, advise, inform[in`f):m]通知, teach等,
可以先有一个宾语后接上适当的'疑问词+不定式动词'结构,如:

The chief technician showed the apprentice how to repair the machine.
[ti:f]首席的[tek`niэn]技师[э`prentis]学徒
高级技师告诉给学徒如何去修理那台机器
Have you told him where to get the application form?
你已经告诉他去哪里领申请表里吗?
[,æpli`kei∫эn]申请[f):m]表
总之:文章可以多运用'疑问词+不定式动词'的结构.


----------------------------*高考近年热衷点-3.-------------------------

*解析who, whom, whose, which, when where,在非限制性定语从句中作引导词:

I told the story to Tom, who later did it to his brother.
=I told the story to Tom,and he later told it to his brother.

我给TOM讲了这个故事,不久他又讲给了他的弟弟。
Yesterday I happened to see Tom,who was eager to have a talk with you.
=Yesterday I happened to see Tom and he was eager to have a talk with you.
昨天我碰巧见到了TOM,他急切地想与你说一说。*eager[`i:gэ]a.渴望的

*在日常生活中,人们通常用并列句或简单句来表达;
*只是对先行词作补充说明时,才用非限制性定语从句;
*该从句没有限定作用,它与先行词的关系比较松散,如果省略,原句的意义仍然完整。
*这种从句在朗读时要有停顿,在文字中通常用逗号与主句隔开,再如:
This note was left by Tom, who was here a moment ago
.
这条子被TOM给丢弃了,他刚才还在这儿呀。
..............................
*引导非限制性定语从句的引导词有:
who, whom, whose, which, when where
*引导非限制性定语从句的引导词不能用
thatwhy=这是考点。
*非限制性定语从句所修饰的往往是整个主句;
*从意义上讲
非限制性定语从句相当于一个并列句,在口语中使用并不普遍;
*如果修饰句中的一部分时用whichas来引导,如:

He passed the exam,which/as he hoped he would
. 他如愿地通过了这次考试。

注:as引导的从句可以放在主句之前,而which引导的从句只能放在主句之后,如:
They are hollow, which makes them very light. As is known to all,
Taiwan
is a part of China.*[`h )lou]a.ad.n.vti.空的,虚伪的;无用地;坑;变空
他们是图劳的,这一点也暴露了他们。众所周知,台湾是中国的一部分。
考点:从意义上讲,which指前面主句的内容;as指代的是作为一般人都知道的常识性的东西,因此
常译成
'就象...那样'
*解析非限制性定语从句的内容对主句的起消极作用时,则用
which,而不用as,如:
She stole her friend’s money, which was disgraceful[dis`greisfэl]a.失面子的.
他偷了他朋友的钱,这太可耻了。
He tore up my photo, which upset me.他撕毁了我的照片,这使我心烦意乱。
tore[t ):](tear[teэ]撕的过去时); upset[Λp`set]vti.a.搅乱[`Λpset]n.心烦意乱

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常用表 名词 数词 代词 动词 副词 形容词 介词 连词 冠词 感叹词 疑问词 其它 αæΛ∫θэηδ*加载中

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