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15.动态句中--被动句的其它与扩张

现在时过去时将来时过去将来时完成时过去完成时将来完成时过去将来完成时进行时
过去进行时将来进行时 过去将来进行时 现在完成进行时 过去完成进行时其它时态
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主动: 公式 主+V+宾 |定义: 写主语做某事。

被动: 公式 主(原宾)+be+Ved(过分)+by+(原主语:宾格)|定义: 写原宾语被...。

1.现在时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+V(s)+宾语 |定义 写主语干什么。
He opens the window every day.他每天打开那扇窗子。
考点:+s的口诀:主语等于他|她|它,动词后面S加。

Tom teaches me English.汤姆教我英语。*双宾语→双被动

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+be+过分+by+原主语(宾格) |定义 写主语被...。
The window is opened every day by him.那扇窗子每天被他打开。
提示:be→ am,is are.
Children are well taken care of in China.在中国儿童受到很好的照顾。

被1 English is taught (to) me by Tom. *间宾前面若 +to 为最佳答案
被2 I am taught English by Tom.

口诀:主1,被2...(注:主1=主句的谓语是1个动词时,被动句的谓语一定是2个动词,以此类推)。
口诀:1颠倒,2落下,加2词,全会了。(1主宾换位,2剩余落下,3谓前写be,原主语前+by)
口诀:原谓语改过分,自身位置赠给be,原来时态它承担,谓改过分永不变。by+原主可省略,前提看懂能理解。
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2.过去时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+Ved+宾语
Who broke the window? 谁打破了那扇窗子?
考点:+ed的口诀:动词后面ed加,表示过去不会差,不规则实在多,注意总结少出错。

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+be+过分+by+原主语(宾格) *be→ was were.

The window was broken by who?(先写出中式)那扇窗子被谁打破了?
Who was the window broken by?(疑问词必须提前,其后面必须跟有动词)
= Whom was the window broken by?
= By whom was the window broken?
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3.将来时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+will+V+宾语(will=be going to=将)
Is he going to open the window?他要打开那扇窗子吗?
语法:选情态动词will+V表将来,will一词直接提前变疑问句。考点:be动词可不能提前噢。

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+will+be+过分+by+原主语(宾格) *be不变

The window is going to be opened by him?(先写出中式)那扇窗子将要被他打开吗?
Is the window going to be opened by him?(疑问句必须由动词来引导,结尾是问号)


口诀:主2,被3...(注:主2=主句的谓语是2个动词时,被动句的谓语一定是3个动词,以此类推)。
口诀:1颠倒,2落下,加2词,全会了。(1.主宾换位,2.剩余落下,3.谓前写be,原主语前+by)
口诀:原谓语改过分,自身位置赠给be,原来时态它承担,谓改过分永不变。by+原主可省略,前提保证能理解。
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4.过去将来时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+would+V+宾语
I would not do such a thing for all the riches of the world.即使世上的财富都给我,我也不愿干这种事。

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+would+be+过分 *be不变
Do as you would be done by.己所不欲,勿施于人。
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5.现在完成时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+have+过分+宾语
All he has done is illegal.他所做的一切均属非法。[i`li:gэl]a.非法的
考点:选has时,句中的主语必须是→|he| she| it| 形式。
语法:he has done=现在完成时,是主语All的同位语从句。【主句=描写句】再如:

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+have+been+过分 *be→been
All that can be done has been done.所有能做的事都已经被做完了。
语法:that can be done=将来时被动,是主语All的同位语从句。【主句=现在完成时被动】

Don't upset yourself- - no harm has been done.不要难过- -并没有造成伤害。
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6.过去完成时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+had+过分+宾语
They had done it up brown.他们把它办得十全十美。
My grandfather had built the house in 2008.我祖父再2008年就已经盖好了这栋房子。
考点:用had时,不受主语限制。【访问:52英语金字塔→是3层题】

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+had+been+过分+by+原主语(宾格) *be→been
The house had been built by my grandfather in 2008.这栋房子再2008年就由我祖父已经盖好了。
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7.将来完成时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+will+have+过分+宾语
We will have done everything by the end of the week.到本周末,我们一切都将会完成的。
考点:用will时,其后面的动词要使用原形。【访问:52英语金字塔→是3层题】

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+will+have+been+过分 *be→been
But everything will have been done by the end of the week.最迟到本周底,一切都会完成了。

口诀:主3,被4...(注:主3=主句的谓语是3个动词时,被动句的谓语一定是4个动词,以此类推)。
口诀:1颠倒,2落下,加2词,全会了。(1.主宾换位,2.剩余落下,3.谓前写be,原主语前+by)
口诀:原谓语改过分,自身位置赠给be,原来时态它承担,谓改过分永不变。by+原主可省略,前提保证能理解。
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8.过去将来完成时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+would+have+过分+宾语
I should have done much better.我原本该做得更好的。
语法:should 表应该。考点:should 后面的动词须还原形。

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+would+have+been+过分 *be→been
It should not have been made.那样的话多余说。
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9.现在进行时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+be+Ving+宾语 *be→am is are
When are you meeting Tom?你何时见汤姆?(用进行时表将来时的典型例句)
I'm meeting him at 12 o'clock tomorrow. 我明天12点见他。
Who is taking care of my child? 谁正在照看着我的小孩呀?
考点:选is时,句中的主语必须是→|he| she| it| 形式。

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+be+being+过分

My child is being taken care of by who?(先写出中式)我的小孩正在被谁照看着呀?
Who is my child being taken care of by?(疑问词必须提前,其后面必须跟有动词)
= Whom is my child being taken care of by?
= By whom is my child being taken care of?

The curtain is being drawn up.幕正在被拉起来。
We are being followed.我们正在被人跟随着。 (见p556-简明)
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10.过去进行时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+be+Ving+宾语 *be→was,were
He was doing the same thing day after day.他天天做同样的事。

考点:选过去时was时,句中的主语必须是→|I | he| she| it| 形式。

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+be+being+过分 *be→was,were
Everything possible was being done.
凡是可能做的都做到了。
Our team was being beaten.我们的队那时正输着球
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11.将来进行时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+will+be+Ving+宾语
You must be joking.你一定是在开玩笑吧。
You must be boiling in that thick sweater.你穿著那件厚毛衣一定很热吧!
考点:选情态动词must...时,句中的主语形式不受限制。

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+will+be+being+过分
Our conversation may be being bugged.
咱们的话可能被窃听了。
He may be being interviewed.他此刻也许正在被接受面试呢!
The cake must be being cooked.蛋糕一定是在被烤中。(见p557-简明)
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12.过去将来进行时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+would+be+Ving+宾语
She should be working.她应该是在工作著。
The child should be playing the piano.那名孩子应该是在弹著钢琴吧!(见p722-简明)

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+would+be+being+过分
The piano should be being played by the child.钢琴应该是在被那名孩子演奏著吧。(见p722-简明)
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13.现在完成进行时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+have+been+Ving+宾语
It has been raining since yesterday afternoon.天一直在下雨,从昨天下午起
He has been cooking the cook for an hour.他一直在烤著饼已有一个小时了。

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+have+been+being+过分
The cook has been being cooked for an hour.饼已经被烤一个小时有了。(见p557-简明)
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14.过去完成进行时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+had+been+Ving+宾语
They had been eating away for two house.他们已经吃了2个小时了(还在吃呢)。
They had been playing poorly.他们一直玩得很差劲。

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+had+been+being+过分
The piano had been being played.钢琴一直是在被演奏著噢。(见p723-简明)
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15.将来完成进行时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+will+have+been+being+过分+宾语
They may have been going to the theatre.他们也许已经去了剧场呢。
He must have been cooking the cook.他一定是在烤著饼呢。

语法:情态动词+完成体+进行体=其结构形式已经不多见了。

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+will+have+been+being+过分
The cake must have been being cooked.饼一定是在被烤著呢。(见p557-简明)

语法:情态动词+完成体+进行体被动=其结构形式已经非常少见了。
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16.过去将来完成进行时被动(见B项):
A. 动态句→主动 |公式:主+should+have+been+Ving+宾语
Tom should have been playing the oiano.汤姆应该是一直在演奏著钢琴吧。
语法:情态动词(过)+完成体+进行体=其结构形式已经非常少见了。

B. 动态句→被动 |公式:主(原宾)+should+have+been+being+过分
The piano should have been being piayed.钢琴应该一定是在持续地被演奏著呢。(见p722-简明)
语法:情态动词(过)+完成体+进行体被动=其结构形式已经非常罕见了。

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1被动句中值得注意的4个问题
1.观察被动句时,你会看到by后面会跟有动作的发出者既原主语的事实,如:
He opened the door.被The door was opened by him.
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2.观察被动句时,你会看到with后面会跟有动作的发出者的工具,如:
The wolf was killed with a gun.那只狼被击毙。
参考 He killed the wolf with a gun.被 The wolf was killed with a gun by him.
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3.观察被动句时,你会看到to后面会跟有动作的发出者,如:
He is known to everybody.大家都认识他。
英语思维
他被每个人认识。<这是因为当真正的主语被泛指时,by就要切换成to了.>
参考Everybody knows him.<这里的每个人并不是指真正意义上的所有人,所以不使用确定的by就顺理成章了.>
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4.观察被动句时,你会看到in\on\of\from\后面似乎也会跟有动作的发出者,但实际上不是,如:
He was caught in the rain.他被雨淋湿了。
You're wanted on the phone.有你的电话。
The table is made of wood.这张桌子是木制的。
Wine is made from grapes.酒是由葡萄酿造的。
参考 这里的每个句子都是可以找出真正意义上的主语的,实在找不出时你就可以用形式主语it充当了.

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讨论 主动句的宾语在变被动句时, 必须取代原主语去充当真正意义上的被动主语;由被动变回主动时你还必须
再放回谓语动词的后面还原成宾语,否则你就会出错的;主动句中的谓语动词总数目为1个时,在变为被动句时一
定为出现2个动词;反过来推理,当被动的谓语为2个动词时,变回主动就会减为1个动词了。再有, 谓语的位置始
终是置于助动词的后面,根据 be+过分=被动之根 这一要求, 变为被动句时,谓语动词之前就必须+be动词;同样
,当你由被动变为主动句时,勿忘删除be动词。同时,将谓语动词的过去分词还原为be动词所担当的时态形式 (若
be动词为过去时,谓语动词的过去分词就改为过去时了)。另外,当被动句中无主语时,需要你加上一个主语,如:
The door was opened. 主 Tom opened the door. <被变主的步骤:原过分,快找be,be的时态是什么,自己就改什么
时;被动无主,自己添,主动无be,勿忘删;主1被2,被2主1,按此推论,看动词数目,对错就一目了然>

Tom opened the door.被 The door was opened. <主变被的步骤:原谓语,改过分,自己的位置让给be,原来时态是什
么,be就改成什么时;主1被2动词看,被动略主变简单;若留原主,前+by, by后宾格要求严>

如,主 He opened the door. 被
The door was opened by him.
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2 表示静态的及物动词不用于被动句,如:
This hall can hold 8,000 people.这大厅能容纳下八千人。
参考
have,own,cost,lack,want,fit,fail,last,flee,benefit,hold等词。
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3
在间接宾语前加上to\for\来表示出被动句,如:
We gave Tom some books.我们给了汤姆几本书。<双宾语双被动>
Tom was given some books.汤姆被给了几本书
Some books were given to Tom.>其被动后的间接宾语前选择+to.

参考1 give给,bring带来,leave
留给,return归还,promise答应,show给看,pass递给,hand交给,write写给,refuse拒绝,
send寄,lend借给,tell告诉,throw扔,
等14个动词可带双宾语,其被动后的间接宾语前选择+to,我推荐大家能记忆他们。


参考2 pay付钱,buy买,sing给唱歌,make制,使,do做,get得到, 等6个动词可带双宾语,其被动后的间接宾语前选择+for,
我推荐大家能记忆他们,如:
Tom is paying for his book.汤姆在付他的书钱.<无宾语无被动>

I paid forty gollars for the cakes.我支付了40美元买这蛋糕.<有宾语有被动>
Forty gollars were paid for the cakes.支付了40美元买这蛋糕.

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4
宾语发出的动作被称作补语,变被动时,其补语必须在前面+to,实意动词不能并列使用,如:
We heard him say good-bye to his friends.我们听见他同他的朋友们说再见。
He was heard to say good-bye to his friends.他被听见与他的朋友们在道别。
I saw him enter Room 102
.我看见他进入102室。
He was seen to enter Room 102.

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5
当宾语是一个从句时,变被动时,请使用形式主语it,如:
They said that he had gone abroad to study English.他们说他出国学英语去了。
It was said that he had gone abroad to study English.听说他出国学英语去了。
It was believed that people could be possessed by evil spirits.大家相信人能中邪。
[pэ`zest] a.著魔的, [`i:vl]a.邪恶的, [`spirit]n.心灵
It is well known that the moon revolves round the earth.众所周知,月亮绕地球运行。
/ri`v )lv/v.旋转

参考 It is said that...据说,It is believed that...大家相信, It is known that...众所周知,
It is supposed that...大家认为,It is suggested that...有人建议,It must be remembered that...务必记住,
It is taken for granted that...被认为理所当然,
等7组这一类用法的句型,我推荐大家能记忆他们.

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6
当动词短语本身已经含有被动时,请不要再+by,如:
The table is made of wood.这张桌子是木制的。
Wine is made from grapes.酒是由葡萄酿造的。

He is interested in the study of English.他对研究英语很有兴趣。*静态:描写句=主系表(结构)
He was surprised at your news.你的消息使他惊奇。*静态:描写句=主系表(结构)
=
He was surprised to hear your news.听到你的消息使他惊奇。
PS:
I am surprised that you don't understand it.你不了解这件事使我感到惊奇。
A peach is covered with fuzz.桃上有一层细毛。[fΛz]n.绒毛

参考 be made of\from 由...而制成, be interested in 对...感兴趣, be surprised at 对...感惊奇,
be covered with 被...覆盖着,
等4组动词成语,我推荐大家能记忆他们.

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7
用主动形式来表示被动的含义时,就不用被动形式,如:
主 The latest model cars sell well
.那种最新款式的车被销售得很好。
主 The kind of ball-pens writes smoothly.这种圆珠笔(被)书写时流畅。
主 Your coat doesn't wash easily.你的外套不好(被)洗。
主 Is there anything to do now?现在有什么事情要被做吗?

参考 on sale 出售, on trial试用 试验, in sight 被看见, in stock 被储藏,under arrest 被逮捕,
under control 受控制,under repair 修理中, under treatment 治疗中, under discussion 讨论中, under consideration在考虑中,
等10组成语中的介词on\in\under均可译成‘被'之意,我推荐大家能记忆他们,如:
主 Are these rugs on sale?这些地毯被降价出售吗?<on=被>
主 Detour.Road under repair.前方修路
,车辆绕行.<under=被> [`di:tuэ]vt.绕过
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8
当你想强调动作与偶然性,或非主观性时,被动句中的be可以用get替代之,如:
His wallet got\was stolen in the train.
他的钱包在火车上被偷了。
The Japanese team got beaten.日本队被打败了。
The window got broken.窗户被打碎了。
精华 以上3个句子都没有用be,而用了get来表示作者需要明确该结构是为了表示动作与偶然性,或非主观性。
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9
用不及物动词+介词\副词 在变被动时不可漏掉任何词,如:
主 They laughed at her
.他们嘲笑她。
被 She was laughed at (by them)
.她被嘲笑了。

主 They laughed at her
.他们嘲笑她。
被 She was laughed at (by them)
.她被嘲笑了。

主 Who is taking care of your baby
?谁在照看你的孩子?
被 Who(m) is your baby being taken care of by?
= By whom is your baby being taken care of by?

主 They cut down many trees every year
.他们每年砍伐很多树木。
被 Many trees are cut down (by them) every year.

主 Someone turned on the radio
.有人把收音机打开了。
被 The tadio was turned on (by someone).

主 People often make fun of him
.人们常常取笑他。
被 He is often made fun of (by people).

参考 begin with以...开始, catch up with赶上, fall behind落后, fight about为...而战斗, find out弄清楚,
junp into跳入, laugh at嘲笑, learn from向...学习, listen to听, look after照顾, look at看, look for寻找,
look up查看, look like看起来像, pass on to传递某物给, pay for为...付钱, point at指向, put on穿上,
take off脱下, put out扑灭, send for派人去请, send up发射 发送, talk about谈论某事, wait for等待,
talk to与人交谈, turn on打开, turn off关上, worry about为...而担心, write down记下,
等28组短语
动词,我推荐大家能记忆他们。
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动态被动 指导思想:成分不变,位置变主语:写在哪里还是动作的发出者,宾语放置哪儿它还得按宾语来翻译...

为您答疑:10万个为什么?
1.主/被动现在时能简短交流吗,为什么? 答:能。强调主体用主动,强调受体用被动,如:

Does anyone ever open this window?Someone opens it.It is opened regularly.
有人常打开这扇窗户吗?(主)       有人常打开它。       它经常打开的.(受体)

如Does anyone ever open these windows?→Someone opens them.→They are opened regularly.
有人常打开这些窗户吗?(主体)     有人常打开它们。   它们经常打开的.(受体)

*Now you do the same
.现在你做同样的题。将下例2例句该为被动形式:
A.Does anyone ever air this room? B.Does anyone ever clean these rooms?

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