赵氏52英语过去分词 著作 太阳 ZHAOFU
过去分词 公式 肯:Ved
定义:过去分词Ved是非谓语动词之一。表示过去/完成/被动/使役的事物。

→Fallen
petals lie in profusion.落英缤纷。[`f ):lэn]落下,[`petl]花瓣,[prэ`fju:3эn]大量n.
公式 否: not+Ved
→An organ atrophies when not used.器官不用就要萎缩。[`):gэn]器官,atophy[`эetrэfi]萎缩
→Not worried by his failure,he went on experimenting.没有被他的失败所困扰,他继续做实验。

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用法 除动词外可作↓
1.作主语(名词)

>The dispossessed are demanding their rights.被剥削者在要求他们的权利。
[,dispэ`zest]被剥夺者,[di`ma:d]请求

考点 名词化的过去分词所表示的概念虽然是单数不可数,但作为集合名词时用复数are形式,答题时要明白语意后再选单复数形式。

2.作定语(形容词)
>The United States is a developed country.美国是1个发达国家。[di`velэpt]先进的a.

>This is a well developed plan.这是1个完善的计划。[di`velэpt]成熟的a.
>Don't cast[ka:st]away the used books.别把那些用过的书籍丢掉。
>The frightened child began to cry.受惊吓的孩子哭起来。
*不用表语形容词afraid修饰。

The wind scattered散布 fallen leaves.风卷残叶。
She has (a) good command运用能力 of spoken English.她的英语口语很熟练。占有句
This is the question given.这是所给的问题。判断句

Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists.
Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa.

*与其修饰的词是被动关系,相当于1个被动语态的定语从句。
典型例题
The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.
A.have written B.to be written C.being written D. written

答案D. 书与写作是被动关系,应用过去分词做定语表被动,相当于定语从句 which is written

What's the language ____ in Germany?
A.speaking B.spoken C.be spoken D.to speak
答案B. 主语language与谓语动词之间有被动的含义。

*spoken是动词speak的过去分词形式,在句中作定语,修饰主语language, spoken language有被动关系。
该句可以理解为:
What's the language (which is) spoken in German?

3.作状语(副词)
Not worried by his failure,he went on experimenting.没有被他的失败所困扰,他继续做实验。
Once seen,it can never be forgotten.一旦看见,那事就永远不会被忘掉。
Even if invited,I won't attend the evening party.即使被邀我也不会参加那个晚会。

If locked outside with no key,what will you do then?如果被锁在外面忘带钥匙,那么你该怎么办?
When shot in the leg,he continued to fire back with his gun.当腿受伤时,他还继续用枪还击。
Once printed,the book is very popular.这本书一经印刷[print]出版就很受欢迎。
If bitten by a snake,you should send for help and not walk.如果被蛇咬伤,你应当寻求救助不应走动。

Though surrounded,they were not discouraged.尽管被包围了他们也没有灰心.[sэ`raund]包围[dis`k:rid3]泄气


4.作表语(形容词)
>He felt used by her.他觉得受她利用了。
>He's very pleased with himself.他洋洋自得。
>He seems to be much pleased with himself.他似乎很得意的样子。

>They were much moved by her story.他们被深深打动了,听了她的故事后.[mu:d]感动
考点:用very/much修饰过去分词把握不大时,可用greatly.

>I was greatly moved by her kindness.她的好意令我极为感动。
考点:用very/much修饰过去分词把握不大时,可用greatly.


5.作宾补(全能词)
>He felt her arm touched.他觉得被碰了一下。
>We found the water polluted.我们发现水污染了。[pэ`lu:t]
考点:感官动词接过去分词作宾补的有:see/hear/watch/feel/think/find...

>Please leave the door unlocked.请别琐门。
>I can't get the car started.我的车发动不起来了。
考点:使役动词接过去分词作宾补的5词是:/leave/get/make/have/keep/

All your changes of plan have made me totally confused.你把计划改来改去我都糊涂了。
You'd better have your shoes mended.你最好使你的鞋子修理一下。<≈get让>*使役
You'd better have your shoes mended.你最好把你的鞋修一下。*使役
I'll have my watch repaired.我想把我的手表修一下。*使役
He kept his pipe clamped between his teeth.他一直叼著烟斗。

6.作插入语
插入语 其结构是固定的,其主语不是句中的主语,如:all things considered从整体来看
All things considered,he is the ritht person for the job.从各方面考虑,他做份工作最合适。
All things considered,we're doing quite well.从整体来看,我们目前干的挺好。*-ing 表一般现在时

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现在分词与过去分词的区别>>语态上不同

*现在分词=现阶段/主动/进行
>An interesting play will be put on next week.1个有趣的剧目将被上演在下周。<直译>现阶段
>Someone must be drowning.一定是有人要淹死了。<表进行> [draun]vti.
>It is really surprising news.真是令人吃惊的消息。表主动

>The news is very exciting.这消息使人感到兴奋。表进行

*过去分词=过去/被动/完成/使役
Take away the broken vase.把那只打碎了的花瓶拿走。 表过去
>We are excited at the news.我们听到这消息很兴奋。被动

The vase broken by him yesterday is still on the table.他昨天打碎的花瓶还在桌子上放着。表完成
The girl seemed quite satisfied with her job.
这姑娘看上去对她的工作很满意。被动
She is interested in playing the violin.她对拉小提琴感兴趣。被动

She stood there much disappointed.她非常失望地站在那里。表过去
Heated, water can be turned into steam.加热时,水可变成水蒸气。被动
The teacher raised her voice to make herself heard.老师提高了嗓音,以便让大家听清楚她的话。被动

You'd better get the article written before Friday.你最好在周五前让人把这篇文章写出来。表完成
I will have my haer cut this afternoon.下午我要去理发。表使役

An interested person can not make a fair decision.
1个有偏见的人不能做出公正的判决。*表过去
[di`si3эn]判决,[`intэristid]有偏见的
难点题
1.Who is the man
speaking to your father?和你父亲说话的那个人是谁?
参考中式 The man is who speaking to your father?

2.What is the language spoken in Australia?澳大利亚讲什么语言?
参考中式 The language is what spoken in Australia?
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典型例题
1._____ some officials官员,Napoleon拿破仑 inspected检阅 his army.
A.Followed B.Followed by C.Being followed D.Having been followed
答案B. Napoleon follow 之间有被动的含义。being followed除表达被动之外,还有动作正在进行之意。
followed by(被…跟随)。本题可改为:With some officials following,Napoleon inspected his army.

2._______,liquids can be changed into gases.
A. Heating B. To be heated C. Heated D. Heat
答案C. 本题要选一分词作为状语。现在分词表主动,正在进行的;过去分词表被动的,已经完成的。
对于液体来说是加热的受体宾语,是被动的,因而选C。它相当于1个状语从句>
When it is heated,...
注意:选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的主语。若分词的动作是主句的主语发出的,分词就选用现在分词反之选过去分词。
(Being) used for a long time,the book looks old.由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。*use不是主语发出的
Using the book,I find it useful.在使用的过程中,我发现这本书很有用。
*use是主语I发出的
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*分词作时间状语若强调先后须用having done 如:
Having finished his homework,he went out.做完作业后,他出去了。
=As he had finished his homework,he went out.
典型例题
___ a reply, he decided to write again.
A. Not receivingB. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received
答案C. 本题考查分词的时态与分词的否定式。根据题意判断,分词的动作(接信)发生在谓语动词的动作(决心再写信)之前,
因此用分词的完成式。分词的否定式的构成为not +分词,故选C。
该句可理解为:
Because he had not received a reply,he decided to write again.

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过去分词的总结↓
1.规则动词+ed,不规则动词另记。
2.单个的过去分词通常放在所修饰的名词前面;过去分词短语通常放在所修饰的名词后面。
3.否定形式 not +Ved

4.在句中能作主/表/定/状和补语,但不能作宾语。*宾语=实物。
5.具有名词/形容词及副词的性质。
6.作主语=名词;作状语=副词;作表语/定语=形容词。
7.非谓语动词共有3种:
1.不定式.2.现在分词.3.过去分词.
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