52英语主谓一致(上) 反意问句(中) 并列句(下) 著作 太阳 ZHAOFU

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【讲座1主谓一致 第一章
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定义 指谓语动词要与句子的主语在人称和单复数变化上保持一致性,其表现形式多见现在时。
3 类
形式上的一致;在意义上的一致;主语与谓语一致。
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第一课
形式上的一致
临近原则

1.存在句>的句型there be在表示一系列事物的存在时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。
存在句>There is a pen,a knife and several books on the desk.在书桌上面有1枝笔,1把小刀和一些书籍.
存在句>There is a book and two pencils on the desk.课桌上有1本书和两支铅笔。
存在句>There is a pen,a pencil and two books on the desk.

2.存在句>的句型here be在表示一系列事物的存在时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。
存在句>Dear,Here is a pen,a few envelops and some paper for you.亲爱的,给你1枝笔一些信封和一些纸.

3.当句型either...or...要么...要么...在表示半否定的事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。
描写句>Either you or I am right.要么你对,要么我对.
4.当句型neither...nor...既不...也不...在表示全否定的事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。
描写句>Neither you nor I am wrong.你我都没错.
考点 当either/neither+of+名\代 词复数 作主语时,谓语动词常为单数形式。

5.当句型not only ...but also...不但...而且...在表示递进关系的事物时,常采用邻近原则。
描写句>Not only Tom but also you are wrong.不但汤姆而且你也错了.
描写句>Not only Tom but also his sisters are kind to me.不但汤姆而且他的姐妹们也对我很好.
动态句>She not only plays well,but also writes music.她不仅很会演奏,而且还会作曲.
动态句>Not only he but also I like music.不仅他,而且我也喜欢音乐.
判断句>Not only Tom but also his sisters have been to HK.不但汤姆而且他的姐妹们也到过香港.
考点 请记住本句中的 have been 表示有过某经历,判断是还是不是,而go\come代表的却是过程.

6.当句型not only ...but+主语+also...不仅...而且...在表示递进关系的事物时,常采用邻近原则。
描写句>Not only you but I am also hungry.不仅你饿,我也饿了.

7.含有ome等结构里,除正式场合外,采用you去切换反问部分的主语.
描写句>One shouldn't be selfish,should one?一个人不能自私,应该吗?<正式说法>
描写句>One shouldn't be selfish[`selfi∫],should you?一个人不应该自私,你应该吗?<非正式>

考点
在形式上的一致是来源于习惯上的说法不五关系.

8.含有most of,half of,part of,a portion of等词引导的主语时,动词必须与of后面的名词保持一致。
被动句>Most of his money is spent on books.
被动句>Most of the students are taking an active part in sports.
考点 当most of+名词复数 作主语时,谓语动词是复数形式,若是1个不可数名词作主语,谓语动词则用单数形式.

9.含有many a 或 more than one等词所修饰的词作主语时,谓语动词必须用单数形式;但由more than...of
作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。
动态句>Many a person has read the novel.许多人都读过这本书。
动态句>More than 60 percent of the students are from the city.百分之六十多的学生都来自这个城市.
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第二课 意义上的一致
复数原理

1.当并列结构作主语时,采用复数形式。
描写句>Reading and writing are very important.读和写都是很重要的.

描写句>Reading and writing are different skills.读和写是不同的技能.
判断句>Reading,writing,English are math are basics.阅读,写作,英语和数学是基本功.
2.当句型both...and...两者都...在表示并列关系的事物时,采用复数形式。
描写句>Both his brother and sister are married.他的 哥哥和姐姐两人都是已婚的.


3.当类指与全体指的句型the+形容词...the...在看视单三,实为复数的事物时,采用复数形式。
被动句
>The old are respected in China.老年人受到尊敬在中国。[ri`spekt]尊敬vt.;be+过分=被动
描写句>The young are more malleable than the old.年轻人比老年人更易受影响.[`mэeliэbl]易受影响的.
描写句>The poor are often jealous of the rich.穷人经常妒忌富人。[`d3elэs]妒忌的a.
描写句>The poor are rich when they are satisfied.贫知足的即为富.satisfy[`sэetisfai]满足v.

动态句>The help are demanding higher wages.雇工们正在要求增加工资。demand[di`ma:nd]请求
动态句>
The volleyball team are playing magnificently.排球队员各个表现出色.
单词:magnificently[mэeg`nifisэntli]adv.壮观地

判断句>All the village are very poor.全村村民都很贫穷。

4.主语family看似单数名词时,若表示复数概念则采用were形式,以保持意义上的一致.
动态句>The family were watching TV last night.昨晚全家人在看电视。*意义上的一致.
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第三课 意义上的一致
单复数原理

1.在反问结构里,主语的切换应保持意义上的一致性。

判断句>
This is an English book,isn't it?这是1本英语书,它不是吗?
判断句>These aren't English books,are they?这些不是英语书,他们是吗?
考点 this\that\these\those为主语时,用it\they去充当反问部分的主语.

2.在肯定形式的结构里,主语谓语须保持一致性。
动态句>The child is playing outside.那名孩子正在外面玩呢.

动态句>The children are playing outside.那些孩子们正在外面玩呢.

3.在含有集体名词等结构里,主语与谓语都应视为复数people,police,cattle,poultry,enemy等,
看起来是单数形式,却用复数形式.
存在句>Are there any police around?

判断句>His family are music lovers.他的家人都是音乐爱好者。
考点 集体名词是family,audience,crew,crowd,class,company,committee等词,在表示各个成员时,用单数。
描写句>His family isn't very large.他家不是一个大家庭。

4.用动词原形引导的祈使句,反问时用will you/won't you/would you的形式,来体现将来时.
动态句>Stop talking,will you?请停止说话,好吗?


5.含有主语works的句子,单复作主语皆可.
被动句>The steel works is closed for the holidays.这座刚厂假期停工。
被动句>The steel works are closed for the holidays.同上


6.当主语后面跟有together with,with,like,except,but,no less than,as well as 等词引起的
短语时,谓语动词必须找到它前面的真正主语后让其保持一致。

动态句>The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory.<真正主语teach>
动态句>He as well as I wants to go boating.<真正主语he>

7.当主语后面跟有表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的名词作主语时,谓语用单复数皆可.
描写句>Ten yuan is enough.

8.当主语是what,which,who,none,some,any,more,most,all等词时,由其指代的对象来决定。
描写句>All is right.一切顺利.>>All is ready.都准备好了.
描写句>All are present.所有人都到齐了.[`preznt]a.出席的
考点 当all作主语时,若谓语动词用单数形式表示时,视为1个整体;若用复数则表示全体。

9.引导主语的是number,majority,variety,population,proportion等词时,由其指代的对象来决定。
被动句>A number of books have lent out.<真正主语books>
判断句>The number of students absent is five.缺席的学生人数为(是)5名.<真正主语number>
考点 a number of(=many)+ 名词复数 作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式;若the number of+名词复数 作主语时,
谓语动词应为单数形式,它的意思是‘…的数字或数量'。


判断句>What's the number of your car?你的车是多少号?<真正主语number>
动态句>The majority of the students like English\spors.
动态句>The\A majority of people seem to prefer TV to radio.大部分人似乎喜欢看电视而不喜欢听收音机.
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第四课 意义上的一致
单数原理

1.
当主语由and连结的两个词前面只有1个冠词且意指同一事物时,谓语动词用单数。
描写句>The iron and steel industry is very important to our life.
判断句>The rise and fall of a nation is the concern of every citizen.国家兴亡,匹夫有责.
单词 nation[`nei∫эn]国家;concern[kэn`sэ:n]vt.涉及;citizen[`sitizn]n.公民.

考点 主语为短语或句子时,谓语动词用单数形式。

典型考题
被动句>The League secretary and monitor___asked to make a speech at the meeting.
A.is B.was C.are D.were

考点 本句是过去时,先排除A.,C;本题易误选D,因为The League secretary and monitor好象是2个人,但仔细辨别,
monitor前没有the,当1个人兼数职时只在第1个职务前加定冠词,则后面的职务用and 连接后为一个人,所以应选
B.

2.当主语是1本书或1条格言时,谓语动词单数多见。
判断句>The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English.<<天方夜谭>>是英语爱好者熟悉的1本好书。

3.当有everyeach自身或去修饰单数名词须使用and并列时,谓语动词也用单数形式。
描写句>Each and every one of the guests was all smiles客人们个个笑逐颜开.
占有句>Every coin has two sides.swu事物总是一分为二. 英语思维:每枚硬币有2个边.
占有句>Every bedroom in the hotel has a bathroom en suite.该旅馆每间卧室都有洗澡间自成1套.
单词 en\半方;suite[swi:t]n.taof套房


4.当有些名词news,physics,maths,politics等以‘s'结尾,但却是单数形式。
占有句>Bad news has wings.好事不出门,坏事传千里. 英语思维:坏新闻有翅膀.


5.含one of+复数名词引导的句子,动词用单数形式。
判断句>Which one of those professors is Mr. Green?那些教授之中哪位是格林先生?

6.涉及到时间\金钱\数量等抽象概念的名词引导的句子,动词用单数形式。
描写句>Three hours is enough.三小时足够了.
判断句>Ten dollars is what he needs.十元钱是他所需要的.
描写句>This kind of men is dangerous.这类人物是危险的.
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第五课 主语与谓语一致
单复数原理

1.在含有each,every等结构里,主语与谓语都应视为单数。
占有句>Each of us has a computer.我们当中的每个人都有1台电脑.
考点 当each of+名词复数 作主语时,谓语动词单数形式。

描写句>Everything is ready,isn't it?一切准备好了,不是吗?考点 注意everything只限用单数.
存在句>There is something wrong with my computer.我的电脑出故障了.
动态句>Everybody knows this,doesn't it?人人都知道这一点,不是吗?

考点 代词each和由every,some,no等构成的复合代词作主语,或主语中含有each,every时,谓语用单数;

2.在含有any等结构里,
可根据其数量概念,要么选用单数要么选用复数。
动态句>Any higher\further bids?还有出更高价的吗?bid[bid]vt.i.出价
被动句>Any misgivings are driven out.心中的忧虑都被驱散了. misgiving[mis`giviη]n.不安

3.含有each,every等结构里,在反问时采用复数形式能表现集合性代词的用法。
动态句>Everybody knows this,don't they?人人都知道这一点,他们不知道吗?<用复数反问>
考点
对合成代词everybody/everyone/someone/none/nobody/somebody...引出的反问部分用it/they作主语皆可,如:
动态句>Everybody knows this,doesn't it?

4.含有nonenone of+名\代 词复数 作主语时,谓语动词单\复数皆可,若指明的是不可数名词时,谓语动词只能用单数。
动态句>None of them has\have come back yet.他们谁也没回来.

5.
在含有I think/believe/suppose等结构里,要对从句部分反问并保持一致.
+>
I don't think he is wrong,is she?我不认为他是错误的,他错了吗?

考点 a pair of+名词复数 作主语时,动词为单数,若pairs of时,动词为复数形式;当a part of+名词 作主语时,若
名词是单数,谓语动词则为单数形式;若名词是复数,谓语动词则为复数;当a group of+名词 作主语强调整体时,动
词用单数形式,若强调group中的各成员,动词用复数;
a lot oflots of+名词复数 作主语时,谓语动词用复数
形式,如果是1个不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词则用单数形式;
plenty of+不可数名词 作主语时,谓语动词用单数
形式,若plenty of+名词复数作主语,谓语动词则为复数形式;

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【讲座2反意问句 第一章
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定义 在肯定句与否定句(陈述句)之后加上1个与之相反的简短问句为反意疑问句。
2 类 要么前肯后否;要么前否后肯,先从5种句子切入,如:

第一课
①判断句>This is an interesting book,isn't it?这是1本有趣的书,不是吗?<金字塔1层>
否定形式>This isn't an interesting book,is it?这不是1本有趣的书,是吗?<金字塔1层>
否定形式>He has never been to the Great Wall,has he?他从没去过长城,是吗?
翻译:
This\That is your bike,isn't it?
These\Those aren't guitars,are they?

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第二课
②描写句>Nothing is wrong,is it?没有错的,对吗?<金字塔1层>
>Something is wrong with the computer,isn't it?
考点 主语为不定代词something\anything\nothing\everything时,反句部分的主语用it
>Nothing is wrong with your car,is it?你的小汽车没坏,是吗?

考点 本句由否定的代词作主语的句子,此时就是前否后肯的典型例句。请注意噢,当出现not,no,no one,none, never,few,little,seldom,hardly,nobody,nothing,neither,rarely(很少)[`reэli] 这13个否定意义的词时,
都应看作是前否后肯的句子;能作宾语的否定词,在进行反问时肯定否定皆可,查看④占有句中的例句。
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第三课
③存在句>There is someone in the room,isn't there?屋里有人,没有吗?<金字塔1层>
否定形式>There isn't any student here,is there?这儿没有任何学生,有吗?<金字塔1层>
否定形式>There will not be any trouble,will there?将不会有任何麻烦,会有吗?
考点 这是any+可数名词单数的典型例句。

翻译:
>There are two cakes on the plate,aren't there?
>Here is a story about Mark Twain,isn't here?
>There is a map on the wall,isn't there?

>There used to be a hospital in this street,didn't there?这条街上曾经有1所医院,没有过吗?
>There used to be some trees in this field,usedn't\usen't\didn't there?
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第四课

④占有句>He has a sister,doesn't he?他有一个姐姐,没有吗?<金字塔2层>
英式口语>He has got a sister,hasn't he?他有一个姐姐,没有吗?<金字塔3层>
不常使用>He has a sister,hasn't he?他有一个姐姐,没有吗?
<hasn't he为英式英语比较正式的表述>
美式英语>He has a sister,doesn't he?他有一个姐姐,没有吗?
<英式英语目前也逐渐流行这种表述了>
考点 当出现nobody,nothing等否定意义的不定代词充当宾语时,在进行反问时肯定或否定皆可,如:
>Tom has nothing to do now,doesn't\does he?汤姆眼下无事可做,他不是吗?<金字塔2层>

翻译:
Tom has an interesting book,hasn't\doesn't he?
You have nothing more to say,have\do you?<have you为英式比较正式的表述>
参考
>He has a sister,hasn't he?他有一个姐姐,没有吗?
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考点 主句谓语是‘有'的概念have,has时(注意:had只限用did),其反问部分既可用have的适当形式,也可用do的适当形式。
谓语不是作‘有'讲时,其反问部分只能用do的适当形式,如:

You have a headache,don't you?
You have a new dictionary , haven't you?
He has a foreign friend , doesn't he?

You had a good time yesterday,didn't you?
He hasn't a lot of time to spare , has he?
You don't have anything to say , do you ?


He had three cars,didn't he
?
他曾拥有3辆车,他没有过吗?<过去时>
He has three cars,hasn't\doesn't he?他拥有3辆车,他没有吗?<现在时>
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第五课
⑤动态句>You'd like to go with me,wouldn't you?你想跟我去,不想吗?<金字塔3层>
否定形式>Tom doesn't study hard,does he?汤姆不努力学习,他学习吗?<金字塔2层>
>He seldom comes here,does he?他几乎不来这儿,他来吗?<金字塔2层>
>You know little English,do you
?你几乎不懂英语,你懂吗?<金字塔2层>
>Tom's parents don't speak English,do they? 汤姆的父母不讲英语,他们说吗?<金字塔2层>
翻译
>They have never met each other before,have they?
>Few people know him,do they?

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考点 主句的谓语是have tohas to翻译不得不时,其反问部分用do间用have的适当形式,如:
动态句>We have to get there at eight tomorrow,don't we?我们不得不在明天8点钟到达那里,对吧?
>We have to get up early , haven't we ?

>Tom has to finish her homework now,doesn't she?
>Tom has to go therer on foot , doesn't he?
>Tom has to go there on foot , doesn't he ?

考点 have tohave got to 取代时,反问只能用 have
,因为这是<金字塔3层>,如:

We have got to answer all these questions , haven't we?
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>You'd better not smoke,
had you?你最好别吸烟,好吗?
We had better stop the discussion , shouldn't we?
You'd better turn to your teacher for help , hadn't you?

考点 这里的had better是最好的意思,反句时用hadn't\shouldn't皆可。

>You'd better stay here for another two weeks,hadn't you?你最好在这儿再过两周,是吗?
>We had better not get off the bus here,had we?我们最好不要在这儿下车,是吗?

翻译 You had better stay in bed till tomorrow,hadn't you?<因为本句是动态句呀>
>You'd better tell him about the matter,hadn't you?
>We had better do it by ourselves,hadn't we?
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>He ought to know what to do,oughtn't\shouldn't he?
他应该知道作什么,不对吗?
考点 这里的ought to 的反句用shouldn't\oughtn't皆可。翻译:
>Tom ought to pass the National College Entrance Examinations,oughtn't \shouldn't he?
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考点 用used to时,反问部分用didn'tusedn't\usen't\used...not皆可,如:
>They used to be progressives,didn't\usedn't they?他们曾是进步分子,不曾是吗?
She usedn't to go to the park,used she?她过去不常去那个公园,她常去吗?

翻译:

>He used to live in the country,didn't\usedn't he?
>You used to smoke a pipe,usedn't\usen't\didn't you?
>They used to be good friends,didn't\usedn't they?

They used to live in the city , usedn't they ?
He used to get up very early , didn't he ?
You used to play football , used you not ?

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考点 当dareneed=情态动词时,直接反问,为实义动词时用助动词do反问,如:
>We need not do it again,need we?
>He dare not say so,dare he?
>She doesn't dare to go home alone,does she?

翻译
>
He has supper at home every day,doesn't he? *不能用hasn't he?<金字塔2层>
>They have known the matter,haven't they? *不能用don't they?
<金字塔3层>

>They will go to town soon,won't they?*时态应保持一致:不能用don't they?或 aren't they?<金字塔3层>
>He works very hard,doesn't he? *不能用didn't he?或won't he?<金字塔2层>
.................................................................................
Everyone passed the exam,didn't they\he?
Someone is coming,aren't they\isn't he ?
Nothing can stop us now,can it?
Anyone can see it,can't they\he?
>Nothing has happened to them,has it?

考点 陈述部分的主语出现不定代词something\anything\nothing\everything时,问句部分的主语用it。
翻译
>Someone has taken the seat,hasn't he?
>Everyone has done their best in the game,haven't they?

考点 主语为不定代词somebody(someone)\anybody(anyone\nobody(no one)\everybody(everyone)时,反句部分的主语
hethey,此时反问句的动词应与主语保持一致性;
另比较非there be...句型的用法时,请注意下面的例句:
>
There goes the bus,doesn't it?<这是动态句中的倒装句形式>
.................................................
第二章
有17种反意问句的构成

第一种 主句是描写句的感叹句时,附加疑问句用be的不同形式,如:
中式英语
The weather is
how fine!这天气是多么好呀!<记住:感叹词组how fine提前>
正式英语 How fine the weather is,
isn't it?多好的天气啊,不是吗?
..................................................................
What colours(略they are),aren't they?他们是多么的鲜艳啊,不是吗?

描写句>What fine weather,isn't it?这天气多好呀,不是吗?
动态句>How hard she works,doesn't she?她工作多么努力呀,不努力吗?
判断句>How clever the boy is,isn't he?
那名男孩是多么地聪明呀,他不聪明吗?
翻译:
>What a beautiful day(it is),isn't it?
>How clever the girl is,isn't she?
.........................................................................................
第二种 主语为everyone,someone,anyone时,附加疑问句的主语使用hethey,动词也跟着变化,如:
判断句>
Everyone is here,aren't they?人都到齐了,他们没到吗?
考点 这是everyone为单数名词作主语,而反问部分用了复数形式作主语的典型例句。
..........................................................................

One should be strict with oneself,shouldn't one?<口语也可用you>
考点 主语是one时,其反问部分的主语仍然用one

.................................................................................
第三种 主语为this,that,everything,nothing及动名词或动词不定式时,附加疑问句的主语使用it,
动词也跟着变化,如:

描写句>Something is wrong with my computer,isn't it?我的的电脑出了毛病,不是吗?<金字塔1层>
描写句>Everything is ready,isn't it?一切都准备好了,不是吗?
考点 句子是由不定代词something,everything作主语的,必选用单数is作谓语,其主语部分用it

.......................................................................

第四种 主语为none时,附加疑句的主语与动词的变化请看例句:
动态句>
None of them have come back yet,have they?他们中1个也没回来,对吧?<金字塔3层>
动态句>
None of them has come back yet,has he?他们中没有1个人回来,对吧?<金字塔3层>
考点 这里的动词用have则表示3个或以上的人没有回来,改用has则表示1个人,看反问部分就能证明这一点了,再如:
翻译:
动态句>Everyone knows the answer,don't they?或does he?
动态句>Nobody knows about it,do they?或does he?
考点 主语是不定代词everybody,anyone,somebody,nobody,no one等,反问时常用复数they,或用单数he

翻译:
None of the food was wasted,was it? 注 food不可数
None of us are perfect,are we?
None of you went to the cinema,did you?
None of the students heard the news,did they?
动态句>
None of the money was paid to me,was it?什么钱也没有付给我,对吧?<金字塔3层>
考点 这里的动词用was则表示单数概念的不可数名词,反问部分的主语相应地要改为it了。*有生命的事物为可数名词。

翻译:
Some of us wanted to stay longer,didn't we? *这里some包括说话人
On the way back,some of us lost the way,didn't they? *这里some不包括说话人
考点 主语是some of...时,其反问部分的主语分别用wethey代替。

................................................................
第五种 主句部分是I am...时,用aren't\ain't I或am I not这3种形式进行反问。
判断句>I am an honest person,aren't I?我是1个诚实的人,不是吗?<金字塔1层>
描写句>I'm quite tall,ain't I?我很高了,不是吗?<金字塔1层>
描写句>I'm as tall as your sister,ain't I?我同你妹妹一样高,不是吗?<金字塔1层>
翻译:
I am a worker,aren't I? ain't I?am I not?<请记住:3种反问形式>
I am your friend , am I not ?

........................................................................
第六种 从句中的主句部分是第一人称I,we作主语时,附加疑问请转去问从句部分,请看例句:
+>I don’t think he is right,is he
?我认为他不对,他对吗?<用金字塔1层>
+>I don't think he is fat,is he?我不认为他胖,
他胖吗?<用金字塔1层>
考点 这里的翻译相应地作转移处理符合母语习惯。
+>I think he'll be back in 3 days,won't he?我认为他将在3天后回来,他将不会吗?
+>I don't believe that they have known it,have they?
我不相信他们已经知道了那件事,他们已经知道了吗?

动态句>We believe she can do it better,can't she?我们相信她能做的比较好,她不能吗?
考点 当主句谓语是think,know,believe,expect,suppose,guess,fancy想象,assume假定,imagine假想,consider认为...
等出现时,反问部分必须去转问它的从句噢,如:
+>I don't suppose that he is at home,is he?我猜想他不再家,他在家吗?

翻译:
+>I think that he has done his best,hasn't he? *不用don't I?
+>We think that English is very useful,isn't it? *不用don't we?

+>I don't think that you can do it,can you? *不用do I?
+>We don't believe that the news is true,is it? *不用do we?
比较
I don't believe she knows it,does she?
=I don't believe she knows it.
=I believe she doesn't know it.<从句也可用否定的典型例句>
=She doesn't know it.

..................................................................................
第七种 从句中的主句部分不是第一人称I作主语时,附加疑问仍要去问主句句部分,请看例句:
+>You don’t think he is right,do you?你认为他不对,是这样吧?<用金字塔2层>
考点 这里的翻译相应地作转移处理符合母语习惯。
+>They all think that English is very important,don't they? *不用isn't it?
+>He didn't think that the news was true,did he? *不用wasn't或was it?

+>They said that you had finished your work,didn't they? *不用hadn't you
+>Tom told you that she would go there,didn't she? *不用wouldn't she?
翻译:
+>You believe they will come,don't you?
+>He believes they will come,doesn't he?
.....................................................................................
第八种 当表示推测意义的must,can出现时,反问部分要抛开情态动词后根据实际情况去反问,如:
判断句>
She must be our new teacher,isn't she?她一定是我们的新老师,不是吗?
>You must have studied English for three years,haven't\didn't you?你肯定学英语已满3年了,对吧?
考点 这里尽管有must,但反问部分应根据实际情况而定,再如:

判断句>He must be there now,isn't he?他现在肯定在那里,不对吗?
动态句>It must be going to rain tomorrow,won't it?
明天肯定要下雨,不会吗?
翻译:
动态句>He might have forgotten his pen in the classroom yesterday,didn't he?
不用mightn't he?\hasn't he?
动态句>You must have got up late this morning,didn't you?不用mustn't you?\haven't you?
考点 以上2个句子用might\must表示推测;若句中带有明显的过去时间状语成分时,反问部分必须用过去时。
比较:非推测的情态动词must的用法 He must find the proof,mustn't he? [pru:f]n.证据
动态句>You must leave for HK next week, needn't you?
动态句>He must work hard at his subjects, mustn't he?

考点 must 表“一定要”,“必须”,反问句谓语用 needn't ,间或用mustn't.
翻译:
He must be a teacher,isn't he?
=He must be a teacher?
=He is a teacher.

.................................................
She must have arrived there yesterday,didn't she?
=She must have arrived there yesterday.
=She arrived there yesterday.

............................................
You must have made the mistake,haven't you?
=You must have made the mistake.
=You have made the mistake.

..................................
You must have told him that , haven't you ?
He must have seen the film yesterday , didn't he?
She must be at the office , isn't she ?
They must be having a meeting now , aren't they?

考点 当must 表 “ 一定是\肯定是 ”式,反问须根据其后的原形动词选对应的形式。
.........................................................
第九种 并列句含有or,and,but连接的句子时,要对最后1个句子反问,如:
+>She was at work yesterday,but Tom wasn't,was he?她昨天在工作,但汤姆没有,是吧?<用金字塔1层>

.................................................................................
第十种 并列句含有neither...nor,either...or,both ...and连接的句子时,要对实际情况进行反问,如:
动态句>
Neither you nor I knew,did we?你和我都不知道,我们知道吗?<用金字塔2层>

动态句>He looked neither right nor left,did he?他既不向右看也不向走左看,他看了吗?<用金字塔2层>

反问句主语常用复数:
描写句>Neither you nor I am wrong,are we?你我都没错,我们是吗?<复数形式>
判断句>Both you and I are new here,aren't we?你和我都是新来的,我们不是吗?

考点 以否定形式出现的too...to...太...以致不能...的句型时,反问应用肯定形式,如:
描写句>He is too excited to say a word,is he?他太激动了以致于一句话也说不出来,是吧?
描写句>They are too tired to go any farther,are they?
他们是如此地疲劳以致于不能再走太远的路了,是吧?
翻译:
Neither you nor I am a doctor,are we
?<复数形式>
.........................................................................
第十一种 出现较长的句子或主语从句以及不定式,分词短语作主语时如何反问呢,请看例句:
+>Mr.Smith had been to Beijing for several times,he should have been in China
now,shouldn't he?考点 根据临近原则而定。

>Nobody came here while I was out,did they?我出去时没有人来过这儿,是不是?
翻译:

+>What he said is true,isn't it? *不用didn't he?
>To see is to believe,isn't it?
>Watching TV too much is bad for your health,isn't it?
考点 主句的主语是主语从句,不定式或分词短语充当时,根据临近原则反句部分的主语用it形式。
>If he hasn't finished his work,he can't go out to play,can he?考点 根据临近原则而定。
.................................................................................
第十二种 出现定语从句时如何反问呢,请看例句:
+>He is not the man who gave us a talk,is he? 考点 根据主句而定.
存在句>Here is a book which can help you,isn't here?这儿有1本能帮助你的书,没有吗?
.................................................................................
第十三种 祈使句如何反问呢,用will you,要特别提醒时选用won't\would\can you,遇否定请用will\can you如:
>Don't do that again,will you?别再做那件事了,好吗?<动词原形引导的句子为祈使句>
>Go with me,won't you?同我去吧,好吗?
>Turn off the light,won't you?关掉灯,好吗?
考点 主语被省略的祈使句,用will you,won't进行反问。
>Come here early next time,will you?下回早点来,你能吗?
>Sing us a song,would you
?为我们唱首歌,你怎么样?<特别提醒时选用won't\would\can you>
>Stop smoking,can you?
戒烟吧,你能吗?
.............................................
>Don't be late again,will you?别再迟到了,你会吗?
>Don't make a noise,can you?别弄噪音了,你能吗?
>Don't make any noise,will you?

考点 否定祈使句不用won't you形式,避免双重否定。
翻译:
>Do sit down,won't\will you?
>Feed the bird today,will you?
>Please open the window,will\won't you?

>Please don't draw on the wall,will you?
考点 遇到否定形式的主句时,禁用won't去反问;祈使句用will you反问表示请求;用won't you反问表示委婉地请求或邀请。
比较:
Please turn down the radio,will\won't you?
=Please turn down the radio?
=Will you please turn down the radio?
......................................
Wait for a moment,will\won't you?
=Wait for a moment?
=Will you wait for a moment?

..................................
第十四种 Let's引导的祈使句如何反问呢?
答:用shall we;那么Let us引导的祈使句又如何反问呢,用will you,如:

>Let's go,shall we?让我们走吧,好吗?
>Let us go,will you?让我们走吧,你同意吗?
>Let me have a try,shall I?\will you?让我试一下吧,我可以吗?\你同意吗?
考点 Let me...引导的祈使句在反问时,用shall I? 或will you?皆可。
.................................................
>Let us have a rest,won't you
?让我们休息吧,你不同意吗?
考点 被缩写的祈使句,用shall we进行反问;非缩写时表明不是一起行动所以用will you进行反问。
>Let's get down to our business,shan't we?让我们认真对待我们的工作吧,我们不能吗?
考点 句子的get domn to是认真对待的意思;特别提醒时请你记住用否定形式。

翻译:
>Let's not go shopping,all right\ok?
考点 由Let's not引导的祈使句在反问时,用all rightOK皆可。
...........................................................
第十五种 含否定前缀的不能视为否定词,其反意疑问句仍用否定形式,如:
动态句>They dislike English,don't they?他们不喜欢英语,不喜欢吧?<用金字塔2层>
描写句>It's too unfair,isn't she?太不公平了,不是吗?<用金字塔1层>
描写句>Tom is careless,isn't she?汤姆粗心,不是吗?
<用金字塔1层>
描写句>Tom was careless in everything,isn't he?汤姆对每件事都很粗心,不是吗?
考点 记住dislike,discourage,untrue,unable,useless等含有前缀un-\im-\in-\dis-,或后缀-less等否定
意义的前后缀词语时,反问部分用否定形式,如:

描写句>Your son is unhappy,isn't he?*不能用is he?
描写句>The man is dishonest,isn't he?*不能用is he?
翻译:
You dislike it,don't you?
The patient is unable to move round,isn't he?
The news that they failed their driving test discouraged him,didn't it?

考点 遇到不规则的disappear,be unnecessary等时,则反问时用肯定形式,如:
It is unnecessary to buy a bigger computer,is it?
..................................................
第十六种 含I wish...的句型,用may I形式进行反问,如:
>I wish I had met her,may I?我希望着,我已经见到她了,可以吗?
+>I wish I were a bird,may I?我希望着,我是一只鸟,可以吗?
翻译:I wish t go to HK for a short visit,may I?
..........................................................
第十七种 以so引导的句型,用‘你肯我肯,你否我否'的形式进行反问,如:
>So you are getting married,are you?如此看来你们要结婚了,你们是吗?
>So you don't want to go with us,don't you?这么说你们不想同我们一起去,你们不是吗?
考点 用‘同向'反问形式可以表示惊讶\不满\怀疑等情绪。

================================================================================
【讲座3并列句 第一章

定义 用并列连词将2个或以上的简单句(要么是2个单词)连接起来的句子称作并列句。
公式 简单句+连接词+简单句
连词 and,but,or,so,for,nor,still,yet,however,both ...and,not only...but also,neither...nor,either...or,等。
....................................
第一课
①判断句>Are you a man or a mouse?你是一位男子汉还是(1只老鼠)一个胆小鬼?
>Are you a man or are you a sheep?你是一位男子汉还是(1只绵羊)一个懦夫?
>Are you in first or second?你用的是一档还是儿档?
..........................................

第二课
②描写句>
A man is not good or bad for one action.判断人的好坏不能凭一次行为.
>Are you married or single? 你是已婚还是独身?
>All right.But I've been really busy lately.还可以.但最近我真是忙坏了.
>Art is long,but life is short.人生有涯,而学无涯.
.......................................................
第三课
③存在句>
+>
During the week,the road is very busy but there is very little traffic on Sundays.
从周一到周六,这条路一直川流不息,但是星期日没什么车辆来往.
.............................................
第四课

④占有句>
He has a lot of money,still he wants more.他已经很有钱了,但仍然想要更多的钱.
.............................................................................................
第五课
⑤动态句
>Answer yes or no.回答 是 或者 不是.
>Believe it or not.信不信由你.
>Bring wine and\or chocolates.把酒\或巧克力拿来.
>Neither Tom nor Mary has been to HK.汤姆和玛丽都没有去过香港。
......................................................................
第二章
第一课
5种句子的综合
+>We must hurry,or we'll be late for school.我们得赶快走,不然上学就晚了。
+>She is very old but she is in good health.她年纪很大了,但身体很好。

+>Are you really ill,or are you putting me on?你是真的生病了,还是在骗我?
+>Be careful,or you'll fall into the river.当心,否则你将落入这河里.
+>The manage was ill so I went in her place.经理生病了,所以我代她去.

+>This boy did his work carefully,so he never made any mistakes.这小伙子工作认真,从不出差错。
+>I help her and she helps me.我帮助她,她帮我。
+>Tom not only wrote to me last week but also came to see me yesterday.
吉姆上星期不但写信给我,而且昨天还来看过我。
+>You may either stay here or go with us.你待在这儿也行,跟我们去也行。
..................................................................................
+>When Tom is happy,he either sings or dances.当汤姆高兴时,不是唱就是跳.
考点 谓语动词双选3单现形式,either...or...或者...或者...\不是...就是...,表示两者之一,连接两个并列成分。
若连接2个主语时,其谓语动词应采取就近原则,如:
>Either you or I am going there tomorrow.明天要么你去那里,要么我去那里。
考点 若把上句变为一般疑问句时,用are而不是用am.
>Are either you or I going there tomorrow?明天是你还是我去那里呀?

>Either you or he has lunch at school?你和他是哪一位在学校吃午餐呀?
考点 若把上句变为一般疑问句时,用do而不是用does.
>Do either you or he have lunch at school
?

若把either...or...换成neither...nor...就变为否定形式了。<即在其前面 + n 构成>
>Either you or she is good at English.不是你就是她擅长英语.<半否定>
>Neither you nor she is good at English.你和她都不擅长英语.<全否定>
..................................................................................
+>He can swim,so can I.他会游泳,我也会。
考点 so除了连接并列句用法外,兼有结果之意味,既代替前一句中某一个成分,如本句中的so代替swim
..........................................................................................................
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