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【 讲 座 A 】
考点之一:从限定性定语从句切入...

    【规则】限定性定语从句:其从句部分只限修饰先行词。

    *温馨提示:1.从句中与主句雷同部分用引导词替之。

              2.引导词在先行词后,从句主语前。

              3.whom作宾语时,可以用who/that替之。

              4.that,who,which=宾语的引导词时,可以省略。

              5.what不能用于定语从句作引导词。

              6.不可省略。句子的宗旨以强调先行词(前置词)为目的。


沈阳市内:初级班 中级班 高级班 有:小学1~6年 初中1~3年 高中1~3年 有:六~日上课 平日上课 有:成人班
T:024-81887558 QQ:371510713

 
引导词:who=人;whom=人(宾格);which=物;where=地点;when=时间;why=原因;as=像;that=人或物
 
 
限定性定语从句---典型例句 提示 相同部分引导词切换↓
<>This is the house.
<>I lived there last year.
*2个简单句组合=主从句 *house=there
This is the house where I lived last year. 这就是我去年住过的房子.
*where=地点引导词
That is the house where I worked 6 years aga. 那就是我6年前在里工作的房子. *where=地点引导词
That is the house which/that/省略 I visited. 那就是我拜访过的房子. *which/that=宾语引导词
<>This is the house.
<>I was born in the house.
*in the house=where引导 *in the house=there
This is the house where/that/省略 I was born. 这就是我出生的房子.
*where/that/省略=地点引导词
=This is the house in which I was born. *in which=where  
<>There was a young man.
<>He liked adventure.
[э`vent∫э] *man=he
There was a young man who/who liked adventure. 曾有一个爱冒险的青年人. *who=主语引导词
<>The man is Tom.
<>He came first.
  *Tom=he
The man who/that came first is Tom. 这第一名来的人是TOM。 *who=主语引导词
<>That is the teacher.
<>She teaches us English.
  *teacher=she
That is the teacher who teaches us English. 那位就是教我们的英语老师。 *who=从句主语的引导词
<>She is the girl.
<>I went with her there.
  *girl=her
She is the girl who/whom I went with there? 她就是和我一起去那里的女孩。 *who/whom=介词宾语的引导词
She is the girl whith whom I went there? *此时by whom不可用who切换 *介词+宾语=介宾结构
<>Thank you for the computer.
<>You gave me the computer.
  *computer=computer
Thank you for the computer which/that you gave me. 谢谢你给了我这台电脑。 *which=介词宾语的引导词
<>I'll never forget the day.
<>I joined the army on the day.
 
I'll never forget the day when I joined the army. 我永远忘不了我参军的那一天。 *when=on the day
<>I'll never forget the day.
<>I spent the day togetther.
 
I'll never forget the day which/that/省略 I spent together. 我永远忘不了我们在一起度过的那一天。 *which/that=spent的宾语
<>We will never forget the day.
<>We joined the Party on the day.
 
We will never forget the day when we joined the Party. 我们永远忘不了我们入党的那一天。 *when=on the day
<>Octobefer1,1949 was the day.
<>The People's Republic of China was founded on the day.
*found[faund]创立
Octobefer1,1949 was the day when/that/省略 the People's Republic of China was founded. 1949年10月01日是中华人民共和国成立的日子。 *when=on the day
<>He came at a time.
<>Tom needed help at midnight.
*midnight=that=省略
He came at a time that/省略 Tom needed help at. 他在TOM需要帮助的时候到来了。
=He came at a time when Tom needed help. *when=at midnight  
=He came at a time at which Tom needed help. *when=at which *at which=介词at+宾语的引导词.
<>The reason is to invite you to a party.
<>I'm calling you.
*[`ri:zn]=why=原因 *be+to=将
The reason why/that/省略 I'm calling you is to invite you to a party. 我给你挂电话的原因就是想邀请你参加1个聚会。
参考 The reason is that I want to invite you to a party.<that引导的表语从句> 其原因就是我想邀请你参加1个聚会。 *that不可用why切换.*原因=原因×
<>The house is mine.
<>It stands on the hill.
  *house=it
The house which/that stands on the hill is mine. 立于山上面的房子是我的 *which=主语引导词
<>This is the park.
<>I lost my wallet there.
  *park=there
That is the park where I lost my wallet. 那就是我丢了钱包的公园。 *where=地点引导词
<>The towel wasn't clean.
<>You gave me the towel.
[`auэl] *towel=towel
The towel which/that you gave me wasn't clean. 你给我的毛巾不干净。 *which=宾语引导词
<>The hotel wasn't clean.
<>Tom stayed at the hotel.
*the hotel用that切换后引导 *that=介词at的宾语
The hotel that/省略 Tom stayed at wasn't clean. TOM住的旅馆不干净。 *that/省略=地点引导词
=The hotel at which Tom stayed wasn't clean. *at which=the hotel *at that=×
<>The man is in HK.
<>Tom wants to see the man.
*the man=the man,
用who等切换原宾语
*who/whom/that=宾语时
可省略
The man who/wnom/that/省略 Tom wants to see is in HK.
TOM要见的人眼下在香港。 *学会直译好翻译
参考:The man who/whom/that/省略 Tom wanted to see last week is in HK. TOM上周要见的人眼下在香港。 *主句be时态与上句一致。
<>中Where is the book?
<>The book was on the shelf.
*the book=the book,
用that/which切换原主语
 
Where is the book that/which was on the shelf? 先前放在架子上面的那本书在哪儿? *主句be时态与上句一致。
<>中Where are the books?
<>The books were on the shelf.
*the book=the book,
用that/which切换原主语
 
Where are the books that/which were on the shelf? 先前放在架子上面的那些书在哪儿? *主句be时态与上句一致。
<>Have you found the car?
<>You lost the car last week.
*car=car=宾语 *用that/which切换原宾语
Have you found the car that/which/省略 You lost last week? 你已经找到上周丢失的车了吗? *which/that=宾语时可省略
<>Have you found the car?
<>The car was lost last week.
*car=car *用that/which切换原主语
Have you found the car that/which was lost last week? 你已经找到上周被盗的车了吗? *which/that=主语时不可省略
<>Do you know the girl?
<>Your mother is talking to her?
*girl=her宾 *用who...切换原宾语
Do you know the girl who/whom/that/省略 your mother is talking to?
你认识那名女孩吗,你的妈妈正在同她谈话呢? *who/whom/that=宾语时可省略
=Do you know the girl to whom your mother is talking? *此时by whom=介宾结构时不可省略 *此时by whom不可who/that切换
<>This is the hero.
<>We are proud of him.
*用whom切换原介宾结构的宾语 *此时of whom=介宾结构时不可省略,不可用who切换
This is the hero of whom we are proud. 这位就是我们引为自豪的英雄。
=This is the hero who/whom/that/省略 we are proud of. *充当宾语的引导词无制约时,可以省略。
<>I want to find the pen.
<>I wrote the letter with it.
*用with which切换原介宾结构的with it. *此时with which=介宾结构时不可省略,不可用that切换
I want to find the pen with which I wrote the letter. 我要找我用来写信的那支笔。
=I want to find the pen which/that/省略 I wrote the letter with. *充当宾语的引导词无制约时,可以省略。
<>Do you know the girl?
<>Her mother works here?
*girl's=her定 *用whose切换原定语
Do you know the girl whose mother works here?
你认识那名女孩吗,她的妈妈在这里工作?
<>I live in the room.
<>Its window faces south.
*room's=tis *用whose切换原定语
I live in the room whose window faces south.
我住在窗户朝南的房间里。 *用whose切换人或物的定格‘的’。
<>I live in the room.
<>The window of the room faces south.
*of the room=of which *用of which切换原定语
I live in the room the window of which faces south.
我住在窗户朝南的房间里。
<>We've found the materials.
<>They are used in their factory.
[mэ`tiэrэl] *用as切换原主语
We've found the materials as are used in their factory. 我们已经找到了他们工厂里使用的那种材料。 *as=材料=原主语
<>Such people are short nowdays.
<>You describe such people.[di`skraib]
*such...as...像...类.
用as切换原宾语
*as=宾语=such people
Such people as you describe are short nowdays.
你描述的这种人现今很少见。 *学会直译好翻译
<>He is not the same man.
<>He was him.
*him=as  
He is not the same man as he was. 他现在不是过去的他了。 *用as切换原表宾him.
<>This is the same thing.
<>We are in need of a thing.
*引导词as=a thing *the same...as/that 和...同样...
This is the same thing as we are in need of. 这东西和我们需要的一样。 *用as切换原介宾结构的宾语a thing
参考 She works in the same shop as/that I do. 她和我在同一个商店上班。 *as=连词/介词/副词/代词
参考 She is the same age as/that I am. 她和我是同龄人。 *省略谓语时只限用as.
=She is the same age as I/me. 同上。 *as连词&介词 *无谓语时用as,不可用that.
参考 She used the same book as/that I do. 他和我用的书是一样的。
=She uses the same book as I/me. 同上。 *as连词&介词  
同一物:表述↓
   
This is the the same pet as/that I lost. 这是我丢失的宠物。  
=This is the pet that I lost。    
参考 She wears the same clothes as she did last Sunday. 她穿的就是她上周日穿过的那件服装。  
同样,非同物:表述↓
   
This is the the same kind/type/sort of pet as/that I lost. 这只宠物同我丢失的相近。 *kind=同类
*sort=大体上相似
=This is the pet that I lost。    
参考 She wears the same kind of clothes as her sister does. 她穿着的衣服同她妹妹穿着的服装完全一样。  
<>He's not such a fool.
<>He looks a fool.
*引导词as=a fool *such as 那样的...
He's not such a fool as he looks. 他并不是像看上去那样的愚蠢。 *用as切换原表语。
参考 He is not such a boy as you imagine.
他不是你想象的那种男孩。 *[i`mæd3in]猜象vt,vi
参考 This book is not such as I expect.
这本书不是我所希望的。 *学会直译好翻译
参考 He told me of his experience such as I had never had before.[i`ks`piэrэns]
他给我讲了他的经验,我从来没有那种经验。 *用as切换原宾语。had+had=/完成时
<>We don't have such good luck.
<>You have such good luck.
*as=such good luck,
用as切换原宾语
*such as 那样的...
We don't have such good luck as you do.
我们可没有你那样的福分。  
参考 He is not such a bad guy as you are.
他不是和你一样的坏家伙。 *guy[gai]家伙
参考 I have not many,but I will send you such as I have.
我有的不很多,但我会把我所有的送给你。
that+非3单现
   
参考 The Great Wall is one of the world-famous buildings that draw lots of visitors. 世界上长城是吸引众多游客的最伟大的建筑之一。 *that=主语+复数
参考 Titanic is one of the most wonderful novies that have been produced in Hollywood. 《泰坦尼克号》是好莱坞生产的最精彩的影片之一。 *that=主语+复数
that+3单现(含:the)
   
参考 Titanic is the (only) one of the most wnderful movies that has been produced in Hollywood. 《泰坦尼克号》是好莱坞所生产的唯一一部精彩的电影。 *that=主语+单数has
参考 He is the (only) one of the students who knows Russian in our school. 他是我校唯一一位懂俄语的学生。 *that=主语+单数knows
关于限定性定语从句省略的---典型例句 提示:充当宾语的引导词无制约时,可以省略。 相同部分引导词切换↓
<>The person was very friendly to us.
<>We met her at the party.
*the person=her=who/whom/
that:可以省略部分
 
The person (who/whom/that) we met at the party was very friendly to us. 我们在聚会上遇到的那个人对我们很友好。  
<>There is an old man.
<>He wants to see you.
*an old man=he=who可以省略
There is an old man (who) wants to see you. 有一位老人要见你。  
<>Here is the man.
<>You have been looking for him.
*the man=him=who/whom/
that:可以省略部分
*用for whom=介宾结构
Here is the man(who/whom/that) You have been looking for 你一直在找的那个人来了。 *用for whom=引导词时不可省略,不可用其它切换
<>New York is no longer the city.
<>It used to be the city.
*the city用that/which切换原表语。
New York is no longer the city (that/which)it used to be.
TOM要见的人眼下在香港。 *that/which=表语时可省略
<>I don't like the way.
<>You talk to somebody else.
   
I don't like the way(that)you talk to somebody else. 我不喜欢你同别人说话的那种方式。 *引导词前的先行词=way时可省略.
<>I want to take a photo of the girl.
<>You take care of the girl.
*girl=who/whom/that/省略 *短语动词不可分隔=考点
I want to take a photo of the girl who/whom/that/省略 you take care of. 我想给你照看着的女孩拍个照。  
参考 Tell me anying (that)you know. 告诉我你知道的一切。 *anying和what不可同时作宾语
=Tell me what you know.<what引导宾语从句> *anying (that)=what *what不引导定语从句
参考 I want to give you all(that)I have. 我想把所有的一切都给你。 *同上
=I want to give you what I have.<what引导宾语从句=all that/anything that> *all (that)=what *如用what,就会多出1个宾语,不可以的。
     
     
     

【讲座B】
考点之二:从非限定性定语从句切入 ...

    【规则1】非限定性定语从句修饰整个句子。

    *温馨提示:1.引导词不能用that。

              2.用逗号隔断。

              3.不受引导词制约。

              4.句子的宗旨以附加修饰为目的。其从句部分可以省略。


非限定性定语从句---典型例句 提示 主从部分“,”分开↓
<>Tom is in the room.
<>He wants to ask you some questions.
*2个简单句组合=主从句 *Tom=he,用who切换原主语
Tom , who is in the room,wants to ask you some questions. Tom在房间里,他要问你一些问题。 *who is in the room.
可以省略
<>She has only two sons.
<>They are both doctors.
*sons=they,
用who切换原宾语
*who=单/复数
She has two sons,who are doctors.
她有2个儿子,都是医生。 *who are doctors.
可以省略
<>He didn't tell me any news.
<>It upset me.它使我不适。
  *引导词which=it
He didn't tell me any news,which upset me. [Λp`set]打乱/意乱 他没有告诉我任何消息,这使我很不安。 *which upset me.
不能置于句首,但可省略
<>In our class there are ten students.
<>They can speak English well.
*students=they,
用who切换原主语
*more than ten students
In our class there are ten students,who can speak English well.
在我们班上,有10名学生英语说得好.[总数多于10名] *总数:非限定性
比较=In our class there are ten students who can speak English well. *限定性定语:表示班上唯一的10名学生。
*总数:限定性
<>As everybody knows.
<>HK belongs to China.
*as=宾语时,须倒装 *as=主语(被动)直接推出
As everybody knows,HK belongs to China. 众所周知,HK属于中国。
=As is known to us,HK belongs to China. *as=主语(被动)  
     
<>The teacher is from HK.
<>They know from his accent.
[`æ ksэnt]口音 *as=整个句子的内容
The teacher is from HK,as/which they know from his accent. 他们从老师的口音中就知道他来自于香港。 *which引导时只能在主句后,as不限。
参考 As everybody can see,great changes have taken place in China. 正如大家所看到的,中国已经发生了巨大的变化。 *take place发生
参考 Pessimists tell us that the family as we know it is doomed. 悲观主义者告诉我们说,我们现在的这种家庭注定要崩溃。 [`pesimist]悲观者[du:m]使毁灭
     
     

【讲座C】
考点之三: 只限用which作为切入点 ...

    【规则1】限定性定语从句中只限用which作引导词。

    *温馨提示:1.介词+which=引导词是时,用which不用that。

              2.两个定语从句时,不能同时使用that 或 which。

              3.句子的宗旨以强调先行词(前置词)为目的。


限定性定语从句中只限用which---典型例句 提示:2个简单句组合 相同部分用which切换↓
<>That is the house.<>You'll stay in it.
有介词间隔时,不用that *the house=it
1. That is the house in which you'll stay. 那就是你要暂住的房子。 *which=地点引导词
=That is the house that/which you'll stay in. *in+名=介宾结构 *先行词后紧随that
=That is the house where you'll stay.    
<>Let me show you the book.
<>I borrowed it from the library.
<>It was newly open to us.
*book=it,用that切换原宾语*不能2个that当引导词 *library=it,用which切换原主语↓
2. Let me show you the book that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us. 让我出示给你看看这本书,它是我从新开放的图书馆里借来的。 *学会直译好翻译
<>Tom built up a factory.
<>It produced[prэ`djust] things.
<>They had never been seen before.
*factory=it,用which切换原主语*不能2个which当引导词 *things=they,用that切换原主语↓
Tom built up a factory which produced things
that had never been seen before.
TOM 建了一家工厂,生产过去从未见到过的产品。 *学会直译好翻译
<>He didn't write during a year.
<>I got a letter frome him.
*a year=介词的宾语,用which切换。 *有during时,引导词必须置于句首,不可省略
A year during which he didn't write,I got a letter frome him. 他沉默了一年之后,又给我来了一封信。 *有during时,不能后置
=After a year's silence[`sailэns],I got a letter frome him.    
     
     
     
【讲座D】
考点之四: 只限用that作为切入点...

    【规则1】限定性定语从句中只限用that作引导词。

    *温馨提示:1.先行词=最高级形容词或作为修饰成分时只能用that。

              2.先行词=序数词或作为修饰成分时只能用that。

              3.主句出现疑问词who,which时,只能用that。

              4.*先行词=人+物时,只能用that。

              5.先行词=不定代词all/much/none/the one...时只能用that。

              6.先行词= "唯一"概念的形容词only/only one/one of......
                         或作为其修饰成分时只能用that。

              7.句子的宗旨以强调先行词(前置词)为目的。

限定性定语从句中只限用that---典型例句 提示:2个简单句组合 相同部分用that切换↓
<> This is the best.<>It has been used against pollution. [pэ`lu:n] *the best(形/高)=it,
用that切换原主语
&非实物时,不用which
1. This is the best that has been used against pollution.[pэ `lu:∫эn] 这是最好的方法,用来防止被污染。 *学会直译好翻译
<>English is the most difficult subject.
<>You will learn it during these years.
*subject=it,
用that切换原宾语
*非实物时,不用which
   English is the most difficult subject that I'll learn during these years. will=总是/经常性 英语是最难的学科,在我这些年学习当中. *学会直译好翻译
<>Tom is the last person.
<>I want to see him.
*person=him=人,
用that切换原宾语
*人物时,不用which,
2. Tom is the last person (that) I want to see.
*that作宾语时可以省略
Tom是我最不想见的人。*see+that=动宾结构。 *学会直译好翻译
<>It is the first Chinese movie of this kind.
<>I've ever seen it.<出现序数词>
*movie=it,
用that切换原宾语
*精神食粮不用which。
It is the first Chinese movie of this kind that
I've ever seen.
那是我看过的第一部这类中国影片。 *学会直译好翻译
<>Which is the car?<出现疑问词>
<>You lost it.
*car=it,
用that切换原宾语
*实物不确定时,不用which.
3. Which is the car that you lost?
哪一辆是你丢失的车? *学会直译好翻译
<>Who is the person?<出现疑问词>
<>He was praised at the meeting?[preiz]
*person=he,
用that切换原主语
*人物时,不用which
Who is the person that was praised at the meeting?
在会上被表扬的人是谁? *学会直译好翻译
<>Do you know the things and persons?
<>They are talking about them.<出现=人+物>
*things+persons=them,
用that切换介词的宾语
*先行词=人+物时,不用which
4. Do you know the things and persons that they
are talking about?
你知道他们正在谈论的人和事吗? *学会直译好翻译
<>I mean the one. <出现不定代词>
<>You talked about it just now.
*one=it=人,
用that切换原宾语
*实物不明确时,不用which.
5. I mean the one that you talked about just now.
我指的是你们刚刚谈到的那一个。 *学会直译好翻译
<>We haven't got much.
<>We can offer you the things.
*much=things,
用that切换原宾语
*实物不明确时,不用which.
We haven't got much that We can offer you.
我们没有更多的东西提供给你们。 *学会直译好翻译
<>You should hand in all. *hand in交上来
<>You have the things.
*all=things,
用that切换原宾语
*实物不明确时,不用which.
You should hand in all that you have.
你们应该把一切都交上来。 *学会直译好翻译
<>Tom is the only one.<出现唯一>
<>Tom wants to be a teacher.
*only one=Tom,,
用that切换原主语
*人物,不用which
6.Tom is the only one that wants to be a teacher.
TOM是唯一想当老师的人。 *学会直译好翻译
<>Tom is the only one.
<>He wants to be a doctor.
*only one=he,
用that切换原宾语
*表唯一时,不用which
Tom is the only one that wants to be a doctor.
TOM是唯一想当医生的人。 *学会直译好翻译
<>Tom is one of the students.
<>They want to be doctors.
*students=they,
用that切换原宾语
*表之一时,不用which
Tom is one of the students that want to be doctors in our class.
在我们班上,TOM是想当医生的学生之一。 *学会直译好翻译
     
     
【讲座E】
考点之五: 只限用who作为切入点...

    【规则1】限定性定语从句中只限用who作引导词。

    *温馨提示:1.先行词=one/once/anyone时只能用who。

              2.先行词=those时只能用who。

              3.先行词有较长的后置定语时只能用who。

              4.1个宾语从句的引导词是that时,另1个宾语从句的引导词只能用who。

              5.存在句there be开头的句子,引导词只能用who。

              6.句子的宗旨以强调先行词(前置词)为目的。

限定性定语从句中只限用who---典型例句 提示:2个简单句组合 相同部分用who切换↓
<>One dares to tell the truth.
<>One has nothing to fear for oneself.
*one=人,
用who切换原主语
*who写照真实的人
1. One who has nothing to fear for oneself
dares to tell the truth.
一个无所畏惧的人敢说实话 *学会直译好翻译
<>The ones don't please me.
<>The ones flatter me.
*ones=那些人,
用who切换原主语
*who写照真实的人
The ones who flatter me don't please me.
那些奉承我的人并不能取悦于我。 *[`flætэ]奉承
<>Don't tell anyone about the news.
<>The ones oughtn't to know it.
*ones=那些人,
用who切换原主语
Don't tell anyone about the news who oughtn't to know it.
不能把这个消息告诉任何一个不应该知道它的人。 *anyonewho之间有介词短语出现用who切换
<>Anyone fails to finish the task given.
<>Anyone should be criticized.
*anyone=
用who切换原主语
*given=过去分词作补语时要后置。
Anyone who fails to finish the task given should be criticized.[`kritisaiz]批评 任何人不能完成指定的任务,都应受到批评。 *who写照真实的人
<>Those could not see the beautiful clothes     made of the magic cloth.
<>They were not fit for their work.
*they=
用who切换原主语
*made=过去分词作补语时要后置。
2. Those who were not fit for their work could not see the beautiful clothes made of the magic cloth. 不称职务的人都看不到这种奇妙的布料制成的美丽的衣服。 *[`mæd3ik]奇妙的
*[fit]适合
<>Those sign up here.
<>The ones want to go to the Great Wall.
*ones=那些人,
用who切换原主语
*[sain] up注册
Those who want to go to the Great Wall sign up here.
那些想去长城的人在这里登记。 *who写照真实的人
<>I met a foreigner in the street yesterday
<>He could asked me question in China.
*用who切换原主语he.  
3. I met a foreigner in the street yesterday who could asked me question in China. 昨天在街上,我遇到了一位能用中文问我问题的外国人。<有较长的定语> *引导词与who之间有状语隔断用who切换
<>You met the boy last night.<从句>
<>He is the group leader. <主句>
<>He studies very hard. <从句>
*由that/who分别切换原主语he.  
4.The boy that you met last night is the group leader who studies very hard. 昨晚你遇见的那个男孩是位非常努力的小组长。 *有that作引导词时,第2次出现宜用who.
<>There is an old man.
<>He wants to see you.
*由who切换原主语he. *2个实词用to连接
There is an old man who wants to see you.
有位老人要见你。 *学会直译好翻译
<>There are many young men.
<>They are against him.[э`ge(i)nst]反对prep
*由who切换原主语he. *2个实词用to连接
There are many young men who are abainst him.
有许多年轻人反对他。 *学会直译好翻译

?
? ?
【讲座F】
考点之六: 只限用whose作为切入点...

    【规则1】限定性定语从句中只限用whose作引导词。

    *温馨提示:1.先行词被切换成定格时只能用whose。

              2.句子的宗旨以强调先行词(前置词)为目的。

限定性定语从句中只限用whose---典型例句 提示:2个简单句组合 相同部分用whose切换↓
<>I saw a woman.
<>Her bag was stolen.
*用whose切换原定语her *定格人时,用whose.
I saw a woman whose bag was stolen.
我看见了一位手提包被偷的妇女。 *学会直译好翻译
<>I'll call a person.
<>His son knows you.
*用whose切换原定语his. *定格人时,用whose.
I'll call a person whose son knows you.
我要给那位挂电话,他的儿子认识你。 *学会直译好翻译
比较 I'll call a person who knows you.
我要给认识你的人挂电话。 *who切换原主语he.
<>Please show me the book.
<>Its cover is red.
*用whose切换原定语its. *定格物时,也用whose.
Please show me the book whose cover is red.
请出示那本书,它的封面是红色的。 *学会直译好翻译
  *of which=whose ↓  
比较 Please show me the book the cover of the book is red.
=Please show me the book the cover of which is red. *which切换book.
<>Which is the car. <主句>
<>You know its owner. <从句>
*its car=whose car  
Which is the car whose owner you know?
你认识车主的那辆车是哪一辆? *学会直译好翻译
  *of which=whose ↓  
比较 Which is the car the owner of the car
you know?<倒装句>√
=Which is the car the owner of which you know? √ *of which切换car
参考 Which is the car you know the owner of the car?<非倒装>√ 参考 Which is the car you know the owner of which? × *学会直译好翻译
     

 
【讲座G】
考点之七:同位语从句定语从句的区别作为切入点...

    【规则1】同位语从句中的that不担任成分;定语从句巧好相反。

    *温馨提示:1.同位语从句that不能省略,只限用作引导词。

                2.同位语从句that=也就是/构成并列关系。

                3.同位语中间+is后构成相等的关系=同位语从句

                4.先行词+is后不构成相等的关系=定语从句

                5.先行词=抽象的名词mews/saying...时,应联想到同位语从句了。

              6.句子的宗旨以推出2个主语为目的,体现同位关系。

同位语从句中的---典型例句与定语从句的比较 提示:2个简单句组合 同位部分用that并列↓
<>The news is not true.  
<>The leader will come here.  
<同位从句>The news that the leader will come here is not true.
领导要来这儿的消息不是真的。 *that=也就是/同位关系
推理:The news is the leader will come here.
消息是领导要来这儿。 *同位关系:主语=表语
<>The news is not true.  
<>You told me the news last week.  
<定语从句>The news (that) you told me last week is not true. *that=宾语时可省略
上周你告诉的消息不是真的。 *that是told的宾语
推理:The news is you told me last week
*told之后缺少一个宾语 *非同位关系:主语≠表语

定语从句总结

一、定语从语:在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句叫做定语从语,

被定语从语所修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,定语从句必须放在先行词之后。

引导从句的关系代词有:who, whom, whose(一般指人),which(一般指物),that(指人或物)

引导从句的关系副词有:where(地点),when(时间),why(原因)

This is the doctor who saved the boy’s life.

这就是救了那个孩子命的医生。

二、which(whom)在从句中作介词的宾语时,介词一般可放在其前,也可放在其原来的位置上,

在含有介词的固定词组中介词只能放在原来的位置上,而不能放在which, whom之前。

⑴Please tell me from whom you borrowed the book.

=Please tell me whom you borrowed the book from.请告诉我你从谁那借的书。

⑵The house in which Lu Xun once lived is now the Lu Xun Museum.

鲁迅曾经住过的房子现在已经成为鲁迅博物馆。

三、在定语从句中that可以指人或物,代替who, whom, which在从句中作主语或

谓语V.的宾语(不能放在介词后作介宾)

⑴The man that(who)is speaking at the meeting is a worker.在会上发言的这个人是个工人。

⑵Is this the driver that (whom) you talked about yesterday.

这就你们昨天在谈论的那个司机么?

下列情况只能用that

a.序数词或最高级adj.修饰先行词时。

⑴The first English novel that I read was A Tale of two cities by Charles Dickens.

我读过的第一本英语小说是查尔斯·迪更斯写的《双城记》。

⑵Li Lei is the cleverest student that I have ever known.

李雷是我所见过的最聪明的学生。

b. all, everything, nothing, something, anything等不定代词作先行词时,要用that。

⑴Everything that we saw in the museum great interested us.

我们在博物馆里看到的每一件事情都使我们很感兴趣。

⑵Miss Zhao has told us something that we should do in the summer holiday.

赵老师告诉了我们应该在暑假应该做的一些事情。

注:关系代词who, which, that在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数必须和先行词一致。

关系代词whom, which, that在从句中作动宾时,口语中可省;作介宾时,关系代词不可省,放在介词之后。

四、when, where, why

⑴October lst 1949 was the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded.

(when在定语从句中作时间状语)。

1949年的10月1日是中华人民共和国的诞生之日。

⑵Everyone wants to visit the place where the star once worked. (where作地点状语)

每个人都想参观这个明星曾经工作过的地方。

五、限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

限制性定语从句:是句中不可缺少的组成部分,没有从句,先行词意思不明确,主句也不完整,

从句主句不用逗号合并。

非限制性定语从句:主句先行词的补充说明,没有从句并不影响主句意思的明确或完整,

这种定语多句一般用逗号和主句分开,在非限制性定语从句中,一般不用that。如:

⑴Last Sunday they reached Dalian, where a meeting was to be held.

上周他们到了大连,在那里他们有个会议要举行。

⑵She has two brothers, who are both doctors.

他有两个兄弟,他们都是医生。

 

 
  定语从句引导词:which/who/whom/where/when/why/such...as /the same...as.../...such as.../the same...as/the same...that/as/of which  

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