赵氏52英语 现在分词 著作 太阳 ZHAOFU
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现在分词
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定义
表示现阶段持续着的事物。形式:在动词后面+ing构成,是非谓语动词之一。
比较 动名词无时态变化,现在分词有时态变化。
公式 Ving

①肯
Ving→传统称→doing 例句 By doing
we learn.经一事,长一智。

②否 not Ving→例句
Pardon me for not writing to you sooner.请原谅我未能及早给你写信。
Excuse me for not meeting you at the gate.失迎。
Not understanding
the meaning of the words,he couldn't explain the sentence.
不明白单词的意思,他无法解释这个句子。
He admitted not telling us the truth at last.他承认了没告诉我们实话最后。=他最后承认没跟我们讲实话。
注意 重要的是通过直译了解英语的第一思维。

被动
The car needs repairing.这辆车需要被修理了。*用主动写被动。
The roof requires repairing.这屋顶需要被修理了。
Your coat wants washing.你的衣服该被洗了。
Your proposal deserves considering.你的建议值得被考虑。
The book is worth reading.这本书值得(被)一读。
Her bahavior was beyond超出 bearing.她的行为无法被忍受。


She came without being invited.她不请自来。*being+过分→例句
Keep the medicine away from being touched by children.把药品放在小孩子够不到的地方。
This huge bridge succeeded in having been built up last month.
这座大桥在上个月已经成功地被建成了。

语法 动词+ing除不能作谓语动词外,可充当→ 主\宾\表\状\定\补等成分。
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1.作主语
Staying with him made her very happy.和他呆再一起使她非常快乐。*现在分词短语(=动宾关系)=主语

Seeing is believing.百闻不如一见。判断句
=To see is to belish.
To save time is to lengthen life.节约时间就是延长生命。[`leηθэn]vti.变长

2.作宾语
I think seeing is believing.我认为百闻不如一见。

3.作表语
The food here is shocking.这儿的食物糟透了。
Seeing is believing.百闻不如一见。判断句

4.作状语

I was hoaxed into believing their story.我被愚弄了,相信了他们的故事。[houks]
vt.n.

Having found out the reason,he began to repair the machine.由于找到了原因,他开始修理这台机器。分词完成时
Not having finished the homework,he had to stay up late at night.由于没有写完作业,他不得不熬夜。分词完成时

Having been invited,he went to Germany to attend the important conference. 分词的完成被动=原因状语
因受到邀请,他去德国出席了这次重要会议。


5.作定语
This is really a shocking action.此乃惊人之举。
It is a secure hiding place.它是安全的藏匿之处。[
si`kjuэ]系紧vt.安全的a.
The car parking under the tree is mine.停在树底下的那辆车是我的。作后置定语
She said something to the man fixing her car.她跟正在为她修车的人说了些什么。作后置定语

This is the second bridge being built across the river.这是正在被建的横跨该河的第2座桥。分词的被动

6.作补语
She can see a dog running.她能看见一只狗在跑。*补语:宾语的动作。
I asw him running down the street.我看见他沿街跑去了。
Do you smell something burning?你闻到东西烧焦的味儿了吗?
I felt an ant climbing over my leg.我感觉有只蚂蚁正在我腿上爬着。
She can hear someone laughing in the room.她能听见有人在屋里大笑着。

I saw her dancing on the stage.我看见她正在台上跳舞。 *现在分词-ing表示过程
比较I saw her dance on the stage.我看见她在台上跳舞了。 *不定式to+V表示事实或完成


7.短语 *no+Ving不准
No parking!不准停车!
No smoking!请勿吸烟!


8.作连词
Not knowing that the traffic accident happened to her husband,she was waiting for him to have supper.

因为不清楚自己丈夫发生了交通事故,她还在等他吃晚饭。


9.作插入语(有独立主语)
After a little while, her eyes being full of tears, the mother came over and embraced him.

过了一会儿,这位母亲眼含热泪,走过来抱住了他。*her eyes=逻辑主语

Again, blood being all over, the policeman stood up and kept running after the thief.
那位警察浑身是血,再1次站起来追那盗贼。*blood=逻辑主语

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检索1→以下30个谓语动词后跟动名词Ving作宾语:
\admit承认/appreciate感激,赞赏\avoid避免\complete完成\consider认为\delay耽误\deny否认\detest讨厌\endure忍受\
\enjoy喜欢\escape[is`keip]逃脱\prevent[pri`vent]阻止\fancy想象\finish完成\imagine想象\mind介意\miss想念\
\postpone[poust`poun]推迟\practise练\recall回忆\resent[ri`zent]讨厌\resist[ri`zist]抵抗\resume[ri`zju:m]继续\
\risk[risk]冒险\suggest建议\face面对\include[in`klu:d]包括\forgive宽恕\keep继续\prefer宁可,
如:


①I admitted breaking the window.我承认打破了窗户。
②Do you appreciate Beijing opera?你喜欢京剧吗?
③They all avoided mentioning that name.他们都避免提及那名字。 /э`v )id/vt.避开 /`men∫эn/vt.n.提及
④As soon as I complete my training,I'm goingto be a bank teller.一旦我完成了我的训练,我将是一位银行出纳员了。
⑤We're cosidering moving to Seattle.我们正在考虑搬往西雅图。

⑥Why have they delayed opening the school?他们为什么延期开学?
⑦He denied having seen these watches before.她否任曾经见过这些手表。典型例句:现在分词的完成时
⑧We detest his constantly lying.我们讨厌他一再说谎。
⑨He could not possibly have endured a whipping.他不可能受得住一顿鞭打。典型例句:过去将来完成时否定
⑩He doesn't enjoy going to shool.他不喜欢上学。

⑾We were lucky to escape being punished.我们很幸运,没有受罚。*be to=典型例句:现在分词的被动
⑿Of course I can't prevent your going.当然,我不能阻止你去。
⒀Fancy sitting in the sun all day!想像整天坐在太阳底下的滋味! 典型例句:祈使句=将来时
⒁I haven'e finished reading the book yet.我还没有读完这本书。
⒂I can't imagine living anywhere but England.我不敢想像去生活在英国以外地方。

⒃Woulld you mind switching the television to channel 8 ? 请将电视转到第8频道好吗?
⒄He missed my meaning.他没有领会我的意思。
⒅He postponed sending an answer to a request[ri`kwest].他耽搁了对一项请求的答复。
⒆Because I have to practise singing.因为我不得不去练唱歌。
⒇I recall seeing him.我记得见过他。
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Does she resent my being here?她讨厌我呆在这里吗?
He could hardly resist thinking about it.他忍不住要想这件事。
Resume reading where you left off.从停下的地方继续往下读。
He resked losing his job.他冒丢掉工作之险。

I suggest our going to the park on Sunday.我建议我们星期日去公园。
He had to face the jeering of his classmates.他只得面对同学们的奚落。
Cleverness should include keeping a clever head.聪明应该包含保持着1个清醒头脑。=聪明还需头脑清醒。
Piease forgive me for having disturbed you.请原谅我打扰了你。典型例句:现在分词的完成时 [dis`tэ:b]vti.打扰
Always keep your driving licence in a safe place.要保管你的驾驶执照在1个安全的地方。=要妥善保管好您的驾照。
So you prefer living aborad?那么你宁愿旅居海外罗?
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检索2→短语动词或短语后面跟现在分词Ving作宾语常见的有34个:
\admit[эd`mit] to承认\prefer…to宁愿\be used to习惯于\lead to导致\devote oneself to奉献给\object to反对\
\busy忙于\look forward to(to期待(俚语)\no good无好处\no use没用\It's worth值得\as well as也\can't help忍不住\
\It's no use没用\good良好\be tired of懒得\be fond[f)nd] of喜欢\be capable of能\be afraid of\be proud of自豪\
\think of\think about\hold off推迟\put off托\keep on继续\insist on坚持\count on看作\upon立即\set about着手\
\good at善于\take up开始从事\give up戒绝\burst out突然起来\prevent...from...阻止\


①Tom would never admit to being wrong.汤姆从不认错。
②I prefer reading books to watching TV.我宁愿看书而不愿看电视。
③We are used to sitting up late.我们习惯于熬夜到很晚。
④The new law will naturally lead to the rising of prices.这条新法令自然会引起价格上涨。
⑤Tom devoted himself to writing.汤姆专心写作。

⑥I do object to changing my room.我的确反对更换房间。*强调动词在V前+do.
⑦Tom busies himself with collecting.汤姆忙于收集资料。
⑧Iam looking forward to meeting you.我期待见到你。
⑨I think it's no good writing to him.我认为写信给他没有多大用处。
⑩It is of no use talking with him.跟他说没用。


①Anyway,it is worth doing\trying.反正值得一做\试。记:be worth doing
②He takes private[`praivit] pupils as well as teaching in school.他除在学校任教外也私自教授学生。
③He could not help crying out.他忍不住叫喊起来。
④It's not a bit use complaining.抱怨毫无用处。 [kэm`plein]vit.抱怨
⑤A good beginning is half done.良好的开端是成功的一半。

⑥I'm tired of arguing.我懒得和你争了。[`a:gju:]vit.争吵
⑦He is fond of writing tricky sentences.他喜欢写绕弯子的话。[`triki]a.狡猾的
⑧Are you capable of negotiating?你有谈判能力吗? [`keipэbl]a.能的 [ni`goui,eit]vit.谈判
⑨Don't be afraid of asking questions.必要怕提问题。
⑩He is proud of being a Chinese.他为自己是华人而自豪。


①She would never think of marrying someone so old.她从未想过嫁给年纪这么大的人。
②I thought about knitting him a sweater.我想过要给他织一件毛衣。[nit]vti.n.编织
③Could you hold off making your decision until next week?你可以推迟到下星期再做决定吗?
④I can't put off starting a family much longer.我生孩子的事不能再拖了。

⑤Keep on singing,Tom.继续唱歌,汤姆。
⑥He insisted on going there.他坚持要去那里。
⑦Can we count on your coming?你确定能来不?=我们能否知道你来不?
⑧Upon hearing the good news he beamed with joy.一听到这个好消息,他高兴得眉开眼笑。
⑨He set about learning Chinese at age ten.他在10岁时开始学中文。
⑩Tom is good at doing a sum in his head.汤姆善于心算。

You ought to take up running.你应该练练跑步。
I'm trying to give up smoking.我正在努力戒烟。
They burst out laughing.他们突然大笑起来。

My orders prevent me from doing that.我接到指示不可做此事。
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检索3→常见以下单词与现在分词有关:

*worth, be worth doing sth.某事值得被做

It's worth trying.不妨试探一下。描写句
It's not worth waiting.不值得等著。描写句
Tell me which are worth buying.告诉我哪些是值得买的。
There's never anything worth watching on TV.电视上从来没用值得看是节目。存在句


*worth while
It isn't worth your while9(只要) going there.你到那儿去不值得。
*while
Do you think it safe to use cell phones while driving?你认为驾车时使用手机安全吗?
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*enjoy
The children enjoyed playing games together.
*现在分词短语(=动宾关系)=宾语

*make
She made her parents very happy by getting the first award on the performances.
她使她的父母非常高兴,通过得1等奖,在演出时。
注意 重要的是通过直译了解英语的第一思维。
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*consider
He is considering changing a job.他正在考虑还一份工作。
*avoid
She can't avoid meeting him.她免不了要碰见他。
*deny
He tried to deny taking away my dictionary.他试图否认拿走了我的词典。
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*keep去记动名词作宾语的4个词:
keep→A buoyancy of spirit kept her going.高昂的情绪撑著她。
enjoy→All my family enjoy skiing.我们全家都喜欢滑雪。*family=复数用法
excuse→Excuse me for being late.原谅我迟到了。Excuse my interrupting you.原谅我打扰您一下。
practise→Because I have to practise singing.因为我要练习唱歌。

*march(三月)去记动名词作宾语的5个词:
mind→Do you mind my closing the window?我关上窗户行吗?
avoid→Always avoid eating very hot food.始终避免进食过热的食物。
risk→They risked losing their jobs.他们冒著失去工作的风险。
consider→We're considering moving to HK.我们正在考虑搬往香港。
help→She could not help laughing.她忍不住要笑。

*gifts(礼物)去记动名词作宾语的5个词:
give upI wish I could give up drinking.我真希望自己能戒酒。
imagine→Inagine passing up an offer like that.真想不到竟放弃这样好的条件。
finish→Have they finished loading up yet?他们把货物装完了吗?
think of→She'd never think of imposing herself?她决不想勉强别人接纳自己?[im`pouz]vti.勉强
suggest→I suggest our going to the park on Sunday.我建议我们星期日去公园。
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*admit
He admitted taking my dictionary.他承认拿走了我的词典。
*avoid
Do you try to avoid making her annoyed?你是竭力不惹她生气吗?
*stop
Stop talking and listen to me.请不要说话了,听我讲。
*persist
They persist in solving the problem in this way.他们坚持以这种方式解决问题。
*pardon
Paron my asking.对不起冒昧问一下。
*understand
I just can't understand him\his taking the money.我真无法理解他为什么要偷钱.
*save
Tom dived into the river to save a drowning child.汤姆跳入河中救1名快溺水的小孩。
[draun]vti.淹没
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检索4→常见以下词组与现在分词有关:

*be engaged忙于 in
We are engaged in compiling a dictionary.我们正在忙于编1本词典。[in`geid3d]a.忙于\[kэm`pail]vt.编辑
*be satisfied满意 with
I'm satisfied with your doing this.我感到满意,你这样做。

*be surprised吃惊 at
I'm surprised at you,playing with dolls at your age.我吃惊的是你这年龄还玩洋娃娃。
*be interested兴趣 in
I'm intrerested in doing some sailing.我有兴趣玩一下帆船。

*be responsible责任 for
A cashier is responsible for handling cash.出纳掌管现金。
A housekeeper is responsible for keeping the house clean.管家应负责保持房子里干净。
*be sick厌烦 of
I'm sick of waiting around like this.我腻烦像这样在一旁等着。

*be opposed反对 to,
She seems very much opposed to your going abroad.她好像很反对你出国。
*belong to
We schoolteachers also belong to the working class.
我们教师(同位语)也属于工人阶级。

*depend相信 on
I'm depending on you coming.我肯定你会来的。
You can't depend on the train arriving on time.千万不要认为那列火车能正点到达。
*succeed in
He succeeded in finding the answer.他成功地发现了答案。

*dream of
I dreamt of seeing her last night.
我昨晚上梦见了她。
Many boys dream of becoming pilots.许多男孩梦想成为飞行员。
Her dream of going abroad was realized.
她出国的梦想被实现了。

*feel like
Do you feel like seeing a movie?你想看电影吗?
*stop...from
No one can stop him from telling the truth.
没人能阻挡他讲出实情。
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检索5→比较现在分词(近期)与不定式(想做)的区别:

*forget
doing to do 之区别
The old woman always forgets taking the medicine.那位老太太总是忘记已吃过药了。
The old woman always forgets to take the medicine.那位老太太总是忘记吃过。

*remember doing to do 之区别
I remember eating the dish before.我记得以前吃过这道菜。
I remember to eat this dish at this restaurant.我记得要想吃这道菜就在这家餐馆。

*stop doing to do 之区别
Let's stop working and have a rest.让我们停下工作去休息一会吧。
Let'stop to buy something to eat here.让我们在这儿停下来买些吃的东西吧。

*regret doing to do 之区别
I regretted telling my mother the truth.我后悔把真相告诉了我母亲。
I regret to say that I cannot help you.我遗憾地讲,本人无法帮助您。
I regret to tell you that you failed in the exam.我遗憾地告诉你,你的考试没通过。
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检索6→几组动名词常见的用法:

*be worth值得 Ving

This film is worth seeing.这部电影值得一看。
Your suggestion is worth considering.你的建议值得考虑。

*can't help禁不住 Ving
We couldn't help laughing when we saw him.当我们看见他时禁不住大笑起来。
*be used to习惯 Ving
Tom is used to walking to his office.汤姆习惯走着去上班。
Was Tom used to living there?汤姆住在那里习惯吗?

*be no good没用 Ving
It's no good complaining.抱怨是没有用的。[kэm`plein]vit.发牢骚
It's no use waiting here for her.在这里等她没有用。
*forgive sb.for Ving sth.原谅某人做某事
They all forgave the boy for doing such a thing.他们大家都原谅了这个孩子做的事情。*all同位语

*prevent sb.from Ving sth.阻止某人做某事
You must prevent the children from touching the dangerous things.你们切记避免孩子接触危险物品。

*without Ving sth.不做做某事
She kept sitting there without talking to anybody.她一直坐在那里,默不作声。
Complete the following exercises without referring to the text.不要看教材完成下列习题。
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检索7→现在分词=不定式被动的用法:
need\want\require\
*need
doing to be+过分 之区别
This car needs repairing.这辆车需要修理一下。
This car needs to be repaired.这辆车需要被修理一下。

*want doing to be+过分 之区别
The road wants rebuilding.这道路要重新修建。
The road wants to be rebuilt.这道路要被重新修建。

*require doing to be+过分 之区别
The roof requires repairing.这屋顶需要修缮了。
The roof requires to be repaired.这屋顶需要被修缮一下。
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检索8→现在分词前面有代词的4组:
think\be\forget\object\
1.think认为 (代词=逻辑主语)+Ving
Do you think my saying so will be helpful?你看我这么说会有帮助吗?*my是逻辑主语
2.be (代词)+Ving
The problem is your relying too much on others.问题在于你太依赖别人了。*逻辑表语 [ri`lai]指望
3.forget忘记 (代词)+Ving
She forgot my telling her about it.她忘记了我曾告诉她关于那件事。*逻辑表语
4.object反对 (代词)+Ving
My parents objected to my staying outside overnight.我的父母亲反对我在外面过夜。 *介词宾语 *object to反对

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检索9→现在分词前面有名词所有格的4组:
\annoy\feel\enjoy\look\
1.annoy (n')+Ving

Marry's complaining annoyed him.玛丽的埋怨声使他很烦。*逻辑主语
2.feel感到 (n')+Ving
What we felt uneasy about was Marry's having too much confidence in himself.我们感到不安的是玛丽过于自信。
3.enjoy欣赏 (n')+Ving
We all enjoyed Marry's singing.我们大家都欣赏玛丽的歌。
4.look (n')+Ving
We are looking forward to Marry's visiting.我们盼望着玛丽的到访。*look forward to俚语:盼望
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检索10→现在分词前面用宾格的3组:
mind\pardon\forgive\there be\
1.mind介意 (宾格)+Ving

I don't mind him coming.我不介意他来。
2.pardon介意 (宾格)+Ving
Pardon me speaking bluntly.请恕我直言。
3.forgive宽恕 (宾格)+Ving
She forgave him saying so.她原谅了他这么说。
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检索11→现在分词前面用普通名词3组:
mind\there be\
1.mind介意 (n)+Ving

I don't mind Tom coming.我不介意汤姆来。
2.there be (n)+Ving

Is there any hope of Tom passing the exam?汤姆有通过考试的希望吗?
Is there any hope of our team winning the game?我们队有赢得比赛的希望吗?*逻辑主语是非生命的则不可用所有格’
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检索12→现在分词=不定式的5词:
advise\
permit\encourage\allow\forbid
1.advise
I advised him giving up smoking.我劝他戒烟。
=I advised his giving up smoking.*现在分词-ing表示过程
=I advised him to give up smoking.
*不定式to+V表示事实或完成


2.permit允许
They permitted him to leave.他们允许他离开。
=They permitted his leaving.
=They permitted him leaving.
We don't permit smoking in the office.我们不允许吸烟在这办公室。*现在分词-ing表示过程


3.encourage鼓励
She encourage him to talke to her.她鼓励他与她交往。
He encouraged us to do so.他纵容我们那样做。
=He encouraged us doing so.
=He encouraged our doing so.


4.allow准许
He allowed us to smoke.他准许我们吸烟。
=He allowed us smoking.
=He allowed our smoking.

We don't allow smoking in our house.我们不允许吸烟在我们家。

5.forbid不许
I can't forbid you seeing that man again.我无法禁止你再和那个男人来往。
=I can't forbid your seeing that man again.

She forbids his entering the room.她不准他进房间。
She forbade him to go out late at night.她不准他深夜外出。
The law forbids stealing.
*不可直接跟to+V形式
...........................................

检索13→现在分词与过去分词的差异:

*
exciting\excited 激动的 区别
We went to an exciting football game last week.我们上周看了1场激动人心的足球比赛。
What exciting news this is!这是多么令人激动的消息!判断句→感叹形式
=Yeah,this is quite exciting news.

What an exciting scene[si:n] it is!它是多么令人兴奋的风景呀!
参考中式:It is What an exciting scene! *需将感叹词组提到句首
注意:现在分词强调持续性,而过去分词侧重于被感动性。

The excited children were opening their Christmas presents.兴奋的孩子们在打开他们的圣诞礼物。
The excited people forgot to take the presents to the party.那些兴奋的人们忘记把礼物带到聚会上了。

*astonishing\astonished 惊人的 区别
He committed an astonishing blunder.他犯了一个惊人的错误。
Gazelles can move with astonishing velocity.羚羊跑起来有时速度惊人。英思维:羚羊能移动用1个惊人的速度。
She gave him an astonished look.她惊讶地看了他一眼。英语思维:她给了他一个惊讶的看。

*shocking\shocked 震惊的 区别
He has a shocking stoop[stu:p].他有一个严重的弯背。占有句
This is really a shocking action.此乃惊人之举。
What a shocking waste of time!这是多么浪费时间呀!
What a shocking waste of money!这是多么浪费金钱呀!
Don't be a shocked woman. 别当个吃惊的女人。

*falling\fallen落下的 区别
He was hit by a falling stone.他被落下的石块击中了。
Fallen leaves are spinning in the wind.落叶在风中回旋。

*developing\developed发展(达)的 之区别
Many developing countries are in Asia and the Far East.许多发展中国家在亚洲和远东。
Developed countries should not treat developing countries high-handedly.发达国家不应该欺负发展中国家。

*interesting\interested兴趣的 之区别
The story is interesting.这个故事真有意思。*be interesting(某物作主语)
The boy is interested in English.这孩子对英语感兴趣。*be interested(某人作主语)

*inspiring\inspired鼓舞的 之区别
What he said was inspiring.他的话令人鼓舞。*what主语从句的引导词
We were inspired by what he said.他说的话让我们受到鼓舞。*what是介词by后面,宾语从句的引导词
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检索14→very+现在分词,much+过去分词:

The football game is very exciting.这场足球赛令人非常激动。
We were much excited at the football game.我们看了这场足球赛感到非常激动。

The film is very boring.这部电影令人厌烦。
We were much bored at the film.我们对这部电影感到烦透了。
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检索15→意义相似的现在分词与过去分词9组:

\moving=moved感动的\tiring=tired厌烦的\amusing=amused有趣的\surprising=surprised惊异的\boring=bored厌烦的\
discouraging=discouraged沮丧的\disappointing=disappointed失望的\frightening=frightened怕的\amazing=amazed惊的

1.moving=moved感动的
The movie is kind of moving.那部电影有点感人。*kind of有点
They were moved by her story.他们被她所说的深深打动了。

2.tiring=tired厌烦的
The work is pretty tiring.这工作太烦人。*pretty漂亮的\非常地
I grew tired of waiting,and left.我等得不耐烦了,就离开了。
Too tired to go.太烦了,不去了。*too...to 太...不...

3.amusing=amused有趣的
He told amusing jokes after dinner.他讲了几则有趣的笑话在饭后。直译:能了解英语的思维。
Everyone was amused at\by the story about the dog.大家被逗乐了,听了那只狗的故事。

4.surprising=surprised惊异的
He reacted with surprising speed.他以惊人的速度作出了反应。
We were surprised at the news.我们听到这消息很惊讶。

5.boring=bored厌烦的
Boring!真烦!
Everyone is bored on rainy days.下雨天每个人都很烦。

6.discouraging=discouraged沮丧的
It's discouraging that so many students have failed.如此多的学生考不及格真令人泄气。
Don't be discouraged.别泄气。

7.disappointing=disappointed失望的\
The weather this summer has been disappointing.今年夏天的天气一直使人不痛快。描写句>>完成时
We were disappointed at the results.我们对结果感到失望。

8.frightening=frightened害怕的
Please call your dog off- -it's frightening the children.请把你的狗叫开,已经吓著孩子了。
They're frightened of losing power.他们害怕失去权利。

9.amazing=amazed惊讶的
I find it amazing that you can't swim.你不会游泳可使我大吃一惊。
We were amazed that he agreed so quickly.我们吃惊的是他答应得如此快。直译:能了解英语的思维。
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检索16→可以用现在分词作以下9词的补语:
\
feel感觉\hear听\see见\watch看\notice注意\find发现\smell闻\keep保持\like喜欢\make使\
1.I can feel a nail sticking into my shoe.我能感觉到有钉子扎进我的鞋里。
2.I can hear someone knocking.我能听到有人在敲门。
3.Tom watched them eating.汤姆看着他们吃东西。
4.I noticed him winking眨眼 at his brother.我注意到他对他的兄弟眨眼示意。
5.You won't find many stdents learning Latin now.现在你见不到很多学生学习拉丁文。
6.I smelled something burning.我闻到了某物的烧焦味。
7.It can keep them from falling.它能保持它们不落下来。
8.I didn't like him\his taking all the credit.我讨厌他把全部功劳归于自己。[`kredit]荣誉
9.These books make good reading.这些书读起来很有趣。

语法 初学者可记住宾语的动作就被称作补语。
................................................

检索17→初级英语常用的现在分词句型7组:

1.be busy 忙着 Ving
Father is busy cooking a meal now.爸爸现在正忙着做饭。
Tom was busy answering the telephone then.汤姆当时正忙着接电话。
2.spend花费 +n+Ving
She spent two hours preparing her lessons.她花了两小时准备功课。
I didn't spend much money travelling in HK.我在香港旅行没花多少钱。
3.waste 耗费 +n+Ving
I wasted a whole morning cleaning the room.我花了整个上午打扫这房间。
I wasted two hours driving to school.我用2小时驾车来到了学校。
4.catch撞见 +n+Ving
I caught a boy stealing apples from the garden.我撞见1名男孩在偷园里的苹果。
5.find发现 +n+Ving
I found him waiting for me at the station.我发现了他在车站正等着我呢。
6.have +n+Ving
I will have a mechanic repairing my car tomorrow morning.明天早晨我将让技工修我的车。
Do you have anybody sending your son home?你让人把你儿子送回家了吗?
7.keep持续让 +n+Ving
You kept me waiting for an hour yesterday.你昨天让我持续等了1个小时。
Sorry.I kept you waiting for a long time.对不起,让您久等了。

..........................................................................

现在分词用法回顾
1.除宾语(实物)外可作
主语>名词作用:
>Doing is better than saying.行胜于言。
考点:现在分词的动作和句中谓语的动作是同时发生,或现在分词的动作表正在进行中,均称为一般现在时形式。
..................

定语>形容词:
>Many developing countries are in Asia and the Far East.[di'velэpiη]发展中的a.
很多发展中国家是在亚洲和远东。
>Is there anything surprising about it?关于此事有什么惊人之处吗?
考点:现在分词作定语时,放在所修饰的代名词后面。
>I thought I could smell something burning.我好象闻到什么东西烧着了。
................
状语>副词:
>He reacted with surprising speed.以惊人的速度作出了反应。[ri`ækt]反应
>When travelling,you should take care of your health.旅行时你应该注意身体健康。
>When playing basketball or football,you might be using 400 calories an hour.
当你打篮球或踢足球时,需要400卡路里的热量。
>Don't reach sideways,while standing on a ladder.[`saidweiz]斜向一边adv.adj.
不要斜向取物,当你站在梯子上时。

提示:现在分词作状语可表示时间/原因/条件/结果/行为主式/伴随情况等。分词短语相当于对应的状语从句。
........................
表语>分词短语>名词作用:
>The result is surprising.结果是令人吃惊的。
His favourite sport is playing basketball.他所喜爱的运动是打篮球。
................
宾补>全能词:
>I found him 1ying on the grass.我发现他躺在草地上。
>A new director[di`rektэ] in this department will really get things moving.
此部门的新主任能把工作开展起来。
>Can you hear the mice squeakhg?你能听见老鼠吱吱叫吗?[skwi:k]吱吱叫
>I didn't notice Tom sneaking up behind me.我没有注意TOM偷偷走上来是从我的后面。直译>就是转换成英语思维。
>Listen to him prating on about nothing.听他瞎唠叨吧。prate[preit]唠叨
>Don't let the boss catch you napping!别让老板发现你在走神儿![næp]打盹
>Don't leave the taps running.别让水龙头流水。
>He has set his heart on pursuing his studies abroad.他下决心到国外求学。 [ha:t] pursue[pэ`su:]
考点:现在分词作宾补通常用于句型主+谓+宾+补,可以带现在分词作宾补的常见动词有15个:see,hear,feel,notice,find,watch,
smell,look at,listen to,have,get,keep,catch,leave,set...

................


2.复合结构
就是在动名词前加上其逻辑主语:名词所有格//形容词性物主代词//普通名词//代词的宾格,见上方>检索\8\9\10\11\
Do you think my saying so will be helpful?你看我这么说会有帮助吗?
We all enjoyed Marry's singing.我们大家都欣赏玛丽的歌。
I don't mind him coming.我不介意他来。
I don't mind Tom coming.我不介意汤姆来。

.................

3.常见句型

A.It's no use doing sth...是没有用的,如>I mean it's no use asking me.我是说问我没用用。
B.Can't help doing sth.禁不住做某事,如>Even I can't help laughing.甚至我也忍不住笑了起来。
C.feel like doing sth.想要...如>I feel like having a drink.我想喝点酒。=I feel like a drink.
D.be busy doing sth.忙于做某事。见上方>检索\3\
E.No doing禁止…见上方初始部分> 7.短语
F.need doing sth.需要...见上方>检索:\7\
................

4.定语专题

作前置定语 
We can see the rising sun.我们可以看到东升的旭日
He is a retired worker.他是位退休的工人
作后置定语
There was a girl sitting there.有个女孩坐在那里。
There is nothing interesting.没有有趣的东西。

................

5.状语专题

典型例题
There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light.
A.followed B.following C.to be followed D.being followed
答案B,其声音是在闪电后,属于跟随者,故用现在分词而不用过去分词。
Using the book,I find it useful.在使用的过程中,我发现这本书很有用。
*use是主语I发出的
*use非主语发出的用过去分词,如
Used for a long time,the book looks old.由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。
注意 分词的动作是主句的主语发出的选用现在分词,反之则选过去分词。
................

6.连词专题

连词+分词短语 在分词前面加上连词使分词短语与主句关系更清楚,常见的连词4组:

\when\while\after\before\ 分词与主句是同一主语,如:

A judge must be detached公平的 when weighing权衡 evidence证据.法官在掂量证据时应该客观公正。
While waiting there,he saw two pretty girls come out of the building.
提示 waiting saw 的主语相同。
A little sum was left over after paying the debt[det].偿还债务后剩下一点儿钱了。
Aim carefully before shooting.仔细瞄准后再射击。
................

7.补语专题

分词作补语 在感官动词和使役动词之后,如:
I found my car missing.我发现我的车不见了。
...............

8.表语专题

分词作表语
现在分词>表示主动与进行,如
She looked tired with cooking.她由于忙着做饭,看上去有些疲倦。
过去分词>表示被动与完成,如
He remained standing beside the table.他依然站在桌旁。
.................

9.插入语专题

*其结构是固定的,其主语不是句中的主语,常见的有4组:
generally speaking一般说来\judging from从…判断\speaking of说道\strictly speaking严格的说\
,如:

Generally speaking,dogs can run faster than pigs.总的来说,狗比猪跑得快。*speaking不是dogs发出的动作.

Judging from his face,he must be ill.从他的脸色看,他一定是病了。*某人判断
Speaking of vacations,when is yours?提到假期,你的假期是什么时候呀?
I think,strictly speaking,you are wrong there.我认为,严格地讲,你在那一点上是错误的。

*与主语动词时态同时发出:
Hearing the news,he jumped with joy.听到这一消息,他高兴得手舞足蹈。
Arriving there,they found the boy dead.一到那儿,他们就发现那男孩死了。

典型例题
The secretary worked late into the night,___a long speech for the president.
A.to prepare B.preparing C.prepared D.was preparing
答案B.
此处没有连词,不能选D,否则出现了两个谓语动词
worked was preparing.
只能在B,C中选1个。又因前后两个动作同时发生,并且与主语是主动关系,应用现在分词。

*动作的发出先于主语的谓语动词:

While walking in the garden,he hurt his leg.在花园里散步时他伤了腿。
..................???????

10.语态专题

分词的语态
1.通常,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动,例如:

He is the man giving you the money.(= who gave you…)他就是给你钱的那个人。
He is the man stopped by the car.( = who was stopped by…)他就是那个被车拦住的人。

2.不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生.
gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned
例 a well-read person.1个读过许多书的人
a much-travelled may1个去过许多地方的人
a burnt-out match烧完了的火柴
.....................................


动名词的总结:

A.动名词作主语、宾语和表语
1)作主语
Fighting broke out between the South and the North.
南方与北方开战了。
2)作宾语 
a. 动词后加动名词doing作宾语 V. + doing sth
admit 承认   appreciate 感激,赞赏 avoid 避免    
complete 完成  consider 认为     delay 耽误   deny 否认    detest 讨厌
      endure 忍受    enjoy 喜欢   escape 逃脱      prevent阻止
fancy 想象   finish 完成      imagine 想象   mind 介意    miss 想念
       postpone 推迟        practise 训练  recall 回忆
      resent 讨厌     resist 抵抗   resume 继续      risk 冒险
suggest 建议  face 面对       include 包括    stand 忍受   
understand 理解    forgive 宽恕         keep 继续

举例:
(1)Would you mind turning down your radio a little, please?
(2)The squirrel was lucky that it just missed being caught.
b. 词组后接doing
admit to prefer…tobe used to lead todevote oneself to object
tostick to busylook forward to(to为介词)
no good,no use,It's worth…, as well as,
can't help,It's no use /good be tired of
be fond of be capable of be afraid of
be proud of think of / about hold off
put off keep on insist oncount on / upon
set about be successful in good attake up
give upburst outprevent … from…
3)作表语
Her job is washing,cleaning and taking care of the children.
..................................................
C.现在分词与动名词的区别
现在分词用作定语时,与动名词不同。首先,现在分词不重读,动名词则须重读。
例如:
a sleeping child 熟睡的孩子(现在分词不重读)
a sleeping car 卧车(动名词须重读)
其次,现在分词表示其所修饰的名词的动作,也可以说,现在分词与其所修饰的
名词在逻辑上具有主谓关系。动名词则表示其修饰的名词的性质,二者在逻辑上
无主谓关系。再以上述两个短语为例。现在分词sleeping即表示其所修饰的名词
child的动作,在逻辑上,child是主语,sleeping是谓语。动名词sleeping则表
示其所修饰的名词car的性质或用途,二者在逻辑上没有主谓关系。
另外,现在分词用作定语时,其前可有副词、形容词或名词,这些词皆与现在分
有密切关系。例如:
a hard-working student 一个很用功的学生(现在分词working之前有副词hard,
是working的状语)
a good-looking girl 一个漂亮的姑娘(现在分词looking之前有形容词good,
是looking的表语)
a man-eatig animal 一种吃人的动物(现在分词eating之前有名词man,
是eating的宾语)

动名词用作定语时,其前可以有形容词,但此形容词不是修饰动名词,而是修饰
“动名词+名词”的结构。例如:

a big waiting room 一大间候车室(形容词big不修饰动名词waiting,而是修饰
waiting room)

名词(代词)之后的现在分词常表示进程,动名词常表示事实。例如:
I saw him smoking.我看见他在吸烟。(现在分词表示进程,hin不可变为his)
I dislike him somking.我厌恶他吸烟。(smoking是动名词,因为him可变为his,
全句=I dislike the fact that he smokes)
有些以-ing结尾的词到底是现在分词,还是动名词,语法家们意见不一。例如:
He is busy writing something. 他在忙于写东西。
有的语法家认为writing是现在分词,表示方面(respect);有的语法家则认为是
动名词,其前省去了介词in。
......................
D.现在分词与不定式的区别
在复合宾语中,宾语补足语既可用不定式,亦可用现在分词。二者的区别是:

1).不定式表示动作的全过程,现在分词只表示动作过程的一部分。例如:

I saw him go upstairs.我看见他上楼去了。

I saw him going upstairs.我看见他上楼的。

2).有时不定式表示一次性动作,现在分词表示重复性动作。例如:

She felt the tears roll down her cheeks. 她感到眼泪流了下来(一次性动作)

She felt the tears rolling down her cheeks.她感到眼泪不断地流了下来(重复性动作)

3)有时不定式表示事实,现在分词则具有描写色彩。例如:

We saw the sun rise.我们看见了日出。

We saw the sun rising behind the trees.我们看见太阳从树后出来。

4).有时因谓语动词的含义不同而须用不定式或现在分词。例如:

You should send your shoes to be repaired.你应将鞋子送来以便修补。
(必须用不定式)

The explosion sent glass flying everywhere. 玻璃被炸得飞向四处。
(必须用现在分词)

5).谓语动词have表“想要”时,其后也多用不定式。例如:

Have Smith come and see me.叫史密斯来见我。(have在此有“吩咐”的意思)

谓语动词have表示“允许”时,后接不定式和现在分词皆可,二者意义无甚区别。
表示“允许”的have常用于否定结构。例如:

I won't have you say such things.我不许你这样讲话。

I won't have you saying such things.P166-167.

....................................................................
b:既可接动名词又可接不定式作宾语的动词有:begin, start, like, prefer,
love, hate等。ⅰ) 区别:后接动名词表示经常性的动作,
后接不定式表示具体的特定动作
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下列动词接动名词与不定式意义不相同,常用动词有七个:remember,
forget, stop, go on, try, mean, regret
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现在分词总结:

1.在句中能作主语/表语/定语/状语和补语等但不能作宾语。*宾语=实物。
2.自身可以带状语或宾语。
3.其完成式动作是在谓语动作或状态之前发生。
4.具有名词/形容词及副词的性质。
5.作主语=名词;作表语/定语=形容词;作状语=副词。
7.分词种类共有三种:1.不定式.2.现在分词.3.过去分词.
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**非谓语动词分析:英语中非谓语动词有三种形式,即不定式、动名词和分词。
**3种非谓语动词保留了动词的特性,具有语态和时式的变化。

⑴不定式作主语一般表示一个具体的或尚未发生的动作行为。多用形式主语it。
不定式作主语常用形式主语it的句式有:
It is(was)+adj +for sb (of sb)to do sth//a pleasure(for sb)to do sth//a pity/
/a shame

②It is(was)a wonder//fun//good manners//bad manners/
/It takes (sb) some time to do sth //It costs (sb) money to do sth/
/It’s (high) time (for sb) to de sth

句子①中,当形容词描述人的性格、品质和特性时,用“It’s(was)+adj.
of sb to do sth”常用于这个句式中描述人的形容词有:careful,careless,
polite,rude,kind,cruel,good,clever,foolish,silly,
stupid,brave,honest,friendly等。

⑵动名词作主语常说明一种状态或表示一种惯常的动作行为。很少用形式主语it。
但下列句式常用形式主语it。//It’s no use(good)doing sth/
/It’s fun doing sth//不定式和动名词作宾语的比较

一般情况下,谓语动词决定了宾语用不定式还是动名词。

⑴只能用不定式作宾语的谓语动词常用的有如下:afford, attempt, manage,
pretend, dare, plan,hope,wish,want,intend,agree,refuse,expect,promise,
need,teach,help,
arrange,decide,fail,offer,prepare,choose,determine
以及词组make up one’s mind to do, would love to do

like to do

would prefer to do 等,其中help的宾语不定式的符号to 可以省略,也可不省略。

下列动词不定式作宾语时,要用形式宾语it,真正的不定式宾语放在句子后面。

think//find//make+it+宾语+不定式宾语//feel//consider//believe/
/These is no need

不定式用于there be 句式hurryfor sb to do sth//way

下列句式中只用不定式//used to, have to, ought to, be going to,
be able to, be about//be

to,ready to be willing to, be sure, (glad, happy,get/
/afraid )to, be sorry (anxious, eager) to do等。

下列句式中只用不定式但不定式符号省略:why(not) do sth,
can’t but do sth, had better do sth, would rather do sth,
rather than do sth。

介词but接不定式作宾语时,其前有实义动词“do”,其后的不定式符号“to”省略。
其前是其他动词,其后不定式符号则保留。

⑵只能用动名词作宾语的谓语动词常用的有如下:advise, doing, 等。/
/动名词用于there be和have句型中:

difficulty(in)doing sth//sometrouble

①sb haveany//much//little//a little//difficulty(in) doing sth/
/some//trouble

②there is any//much//little//a little//fun

③sb havea pleasure(in) doing sth//a good time//need//use

④there is noharm(in) doing sth//good//hurry

⑶不定式和动名词都能作宾语,但意义有区别的谓语动词有如下:

to do“记着去做某事”(动作在谓语后)

①remember//doing“记得做过了某事”(动作在谓语之前)/
/to do “忘记去做某事”(动作在谓语之后)

②forget//doing“忘记了做的某事”(动作在谓语之前)/
/to do “抱歉,对不起”(对尚未做的事)

③regret//doing“后悔,遗憾”(对做过的事)/
/to do 停下来一件事开始做不定式的动作

④stop//doing 停止正在做的事//to do 设法努力去做尚未做的事

⑤try//doing尝试一种方法手段看是否有效/
/to do 想要,打算去做某事(主语一般是人)

⑥mean//doing意思是……意味着……(主语一般是物)//to do 学会了做事某

⑦learn//doing 学着做某事//to do接着做另一件事(内容变了)

⑧go ondoing接着做同一件事(内容没变)//with sth/
/to do 害怕,没胆量,不敢去做某事

⑨be afraid//of doing 担心,唯恐会发生某种后果//to do

⑩fear与⑨相同//doing//(to) do 不能帮助做某事

⒒can’t help//doing情不自禁做某事/
/to do 一定(必定)做某事(强调说话者的观点)

⒓be sure//of doing强调主语有自信心去做某事//like/
/loveto do表示某个具体的行为动作

⒔prefer//hatedoing 表示一贯的行为, 常态。//dislike

⒕start to do (感知动词多用此形式。如know, realize, understand, believe等)/
/begindoing (延续动词多用此形式)

当start 和begin 是进行时形式只接不定式作宾语。/
/to do

⒖continue接着做同一件事(意义相同)//doing

9.不定式和分词作状语的比较

⑴不定式主要作目的状语、结果状语和原因状语。

①不定式目的状语的逻辑主语就是句子的主语。如果与逻辑主语是主动关系
就用不定式的主动式,如果是被动的关系就用不定式的被动式,
如果强调这个目的状语可以构成“in order to do”或“so as to do”句式。

②不定式作结果状语常用的句式有:

a. sb (sth)+ be + too +adj.+ to do…(太……而不能……)

b. sb (sth)+ be +adj.+ enough + to do(足够……而能……)。
但在“too…to…”句式中与下列形容词连用表示肯定的意义。
意思是“十分”“非常”。常用的形容词有:ready, willing,
pleased, happy, eager, anxious, glad等。

在“a”和“b”两个句式中,主语与不定式状语形成逻辑意义上的主谓
关系或动宾关系。如果是动宾关系,要用不定式的主动式表示被动意义。

③下列动词是感知性动词,只接to be 或to have done表示状态的形式作宾补。
很少接to do表示动作的不定式作宾补。这些动词有:think, suppose,
imagine, believe, know, consider, keep等。

④使役动词句式//do“使……做了某事”(to省略)

a. have sb (sth)doing“使……正在做某事”//done“使……被做”
(宾语承受过去分词的动作)//to do “让……去做”

b. get sb (sth)doing“让……干起来”//done“让……被做”

c. send sb (sth) doing“迫使……做某事”

d. keep sb doing“使某人一直做某事”

e. leave sb doing“留下某人一直做某事”

11.连词+分词结构

如果主从句中主语相同,同时从句中还含有“be”动词时,从句中的主语和
“be”动词可以省略,形成连词加分词结构。如果主从句中主语不相同,
不能用此结构,只能用状语从句。

这个句型中,不定式to do作定语与被修饰的sth逻辑意义上形成动宾关系。
如果句中的主语是不定式动用的逻辑主语,不定式就用主动形式表示被动意义,
如例①。反之,不定式就用被动形式作定语,如例②。

need①doing//⑵主语want//require ②to be done

这个句型中,当主语承受宾语的动作时,可以用“doing”动名词的主动形式
表示被动意义,等于“to be done”不定式的被动形式。
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非谓语动词/定义:动词除在句中作谓语以外,还具有名词、形容词及副词的性质,
在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语和补语等,这就是动词的非谓语动词。
/种类:动词不定式、分词和动名词/用法:/1.动词不定式/2.动名词

⑴特征:动词原形+ing构成,具有名词、动词一些特征。

⑵语态和时态的变化

a:动名词的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,
或在谓语动词所表示的动作之后发生。

b:动名词的完成式表示动作发生在谓语动词动作之前。

⑶用法

①作主语:

Picking apples is much better than having classes.摘苹果也比上课好的多。

注意:a:动名词作主语如果太长,也可以用形式主语it代替。如:

It’s so nice talking with her.

b: No +动名词表示“禁止”。

如:No smoking. 禁止吸烟。No parking.禁止停车。

②作宾语

a:只能接动名词做宾语的动词有:
finish, mind, suggest, practice, enjoy, advise等。
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3.分词⑴构成:现在分词、过去分词⑵特点:具有形容词、副词和动词的特征,
现在分词可以带状语或宾语,过去分词可以带状语,构成分词短语,分词或分
词短语在句中可以作定语、表语、补语或状语。

A:现在分词①形式:一般式:表示现在分词所表示的动作和句中谓语动词所
表示的动作同时发生或表示现在分词的动作正在进行。完成式:表示分词的
动作在句中谓语动词动作或状态之前发生。②用法:a:作表语:
The result is surprising.结果是令人吃惊的。注意:现在分词作表语相当于形容词。
b作定语:developing country发展中国家//注意:现在分词短语作定语时,
则一般放在所修饰的名词后面。c:作状语:Passing by the house,
he saw a girl playing the piano.= When he was passing by the house,
he saw a girl playing the piano.他经过那所房子时,看见一个女孩在弹钢琴。
(时间)注意:①分词或分词短语可以作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、结果、
行为主式、伴随情况等。②表示时间、原因、条件的分词或分词短语相当于
对应的状语从句。d:作宾补:I found him 1yihg on the grass.我发现他躺
在草地上。注意:现在分词作宾补通常用于句型S+V+O+C,可以带现在分词作
宾补的动词有: see, hear, feel, notice. find, watch, smell, look at,
listen to, have, get, keep, catch, leave, set等。e:现在分词的否定形式
“not + V -ing”Not understanding the meaning of the words,
he couldn’t explain the sentence.不明白单词的意思,他无法解释这个句子。
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