赵氏52英语网著作 太阳 ZHAOFU 虚拟语气=6种公式
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○虚拟语气
定义:或许能实现,或许不可实现,或许与事实相反,常用来表人的主观愿望或假想,皆属于虚拟语气的用法。
构成:分为真实条件句与非真实条件句2种。

特征:常用if引导的条件状语从句+主句构成。也有其它表现形式。
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*有实现可能的为真实条件句有3种公式:采用的是一种陈述语气既日常生活中所表述事实的手法来完成句子的,如:
公式1[现] if+从句现在时,主句将来时\现在时
公式2[过] if从句过去时,主句过去将来时\过去时
公式3[将] if+从句现在时,主句将来时\祈使句


If you heat ice,it will turn to water.=If you heat ice,it turns to water.如果你加热冰,它会变成水.
If you don't hurry up,you will miss the bus.如果你不抓紧,你将错过那躺公车.
>> 这是应用公式1中的现在时对应现在时 及 现在时对应将来时之要求来完成的句子.

When he was a child,if he was free,he asked me to tell stories.当他还是1名孩子的时候,如果他一有
时间他就让我讲故事.
He said that if he had money,he would buy me a car.他说,如果他有钱,他就会为我买1辆车.
>>这是应用公式2中的过去时对应过去时 及 过去时对应过去将来时之要求来完成的句子
.

If it doesm't rain tomorrow,he will go home.如果天不下雨,他就会回家.
If anybody visits, ask him to wait a while.如果有人来拜访,让他等一会儿.
>> 这是应用公式3中的现在时对应将来时 及 现在时对应祈使句之要求来完成的句子.

以上这一类为真实条件句,故采用if引导的条件状语从句来引出事实到底是个什么样子,可通过句子的同义句,来
加以说明
,如:If you don't hurry up,you will miss the bus.<真实条件句>
= Unless you hurry up,you will miss the bus
.=除非你抓紧,否则你将错过那躺公车.<记:unless=if...not>.
住:我们平常所见到的一般都由if引导的条件状语从句就是以上这种方式完成的.
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*无实现可能的为非真实条件句有3种公式:这是一种真正的虚拟手法来完成句子的,如:
公式1[现在时且与现在的事实相反] if+从句(过去时),主句(过去将来时)
公式2[过去时且与过去的事实相反] if+从句(过去完成时),主句(过去将来完成时)
公式3[将来时且与将来的事实相反] if+从句(过去时\过去将来时),主句(过去将来时)


公式1,如:
If I were you,I should go at once.①判断句:如果我是你,我会马上走的.
=If I were you,I would go at once.<语序:先主谓,后写其它之原则>

If I were not busy,I would go with you.②描写句:假如我不忙,我会同你一起去的.

If I were a boy,I would sing the song.①判断句:如果我是1名男孩,我就会唱这首歌.
If there was no air,people would die
.③存在句:如果没有空气,人们会马上死去.
If there were no air,there would be no living things.③存在句:如果没有空气,就没有生物.
>>这是应用公式1中的过去时对应过去将来时的公式来表述说话人说出现在时的心理,再如:
If I had a computer,it would help me much.④占有句:假如我有1台电脑,它会帮助我很多.
He would tell me if he knew.⑤动态句:他会告诉我的,如果他知道.<学外语时,尽量直译,了解语序的走向>
提示 主句在句首时,不用逗号隔断,这是因为引导词(如if)含有逗号的成分,反之则不然了.
考点 从句用过去时+主句用过去将来时的合并法,写话语人现在时的心情=这就叫虚拟语态的现在时用法.

公式2,如:
If you had been there last night,nothing wouldn't have happened.如果你昨晚在那里,什么事也不会发生.
If you had been there last week,you would have seen the film.
①判断句:如果你一直在(是)那里,你将会看上那部电影了.

If there had been no air,there would have been no living things.
③存在句:如果一直没有空气,也就一直没有生物.
If you had got there earlier, you would have caught the bus.你若早点到了那里的话,你会赶上那辆公车.
>>这是应用公式2中的过去完成时对应过去将来完成时的公式来表述说话人说出
过去时的心理,再如:
If you had come here yesterday,you would have seen him.
⑤动态句
:如果你昨天已经来到了这儿,你就会见到他了.
提示 学外语时,尽量直译,了解语序的走向.
考点 从句用过去完成时+主句用过去将来完成时的合并法,写话语人过去时的心情=这就叫虚拟语态的过去时用法.

公式3,如:
If he should be there tomorrow,he would help you.①判断句:万一明天他在那儿,他会帮助你的.
If tomorrow should be fine,we would start.②描写句:万一明天能放情,我们将会动身的.

If there should be no air,there would be no living things
.
③存在句:万一空气不存在了,也就没有了生物.

>>公式3中的过去时对应过去将来时 or 过去将来时对应过去将来时 用来表述说话人将来时的心理,再如:
If it were Sunday tomorrow,we wouldn't have an exam.如果明天是周日的话,我们将没有考试了.
If you were to visit the school tomorrow, you would see me.
如果你明天要是访问那所学校的话,你肯定会见到我.(暗示:可惜你...)
If you should meet him, you would say "hello" to him.
=If you should meet him,please say "hello"to him.
如果你万一见到他的话,你要向他问好.(暗示:几乎不可能时...)

考点 从句用过去时\过去将来时+主句的过去将来时,写话语人对将来时的心情=这就叫虚拟语态的将来时用法.

以上这一类为非真实条件句,采用if引导的条件状语从句引出的都是非事实的虚拟条件句,所表示的是假设的或
实际不可能实现的情况,故采用虚拟语气.
还有,祈使句也可看作为虚拟语气,如:Long live the King.国王万岁!
注:泛是写不能实现的事物,性质皆属于虚拟语气.
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○精彩部分1


一般认为当现在时的主语是he\she\it\人名单数\事物单数 在肯定形式中,其主语后面的谓语动词需要+S作为标记,
人们称其为‘3单现'或‘单3形式',其实不然,如:
It is strang that he go himself.真奇怪,他怎么该自己独自去呢?
It has been decided that the sports meet be put off till next month.已决定,运动会被推迟到下月.

It is requested that the cloth should be woven at once
.下令马上织这种布。
=It is requested that the cloth be woven at once.<it后面用的是动词原形be=虚拟用法>

It is desired that the bridge should be built in two years.要求两年内建成这座桥。
=It is desired that the bridge be built in two years.<it后面用的是动词原形be=虚拟用法>

It has been decided that the meeting should be held tomorrow.已经决定会议明天举行。
=It has been decided that the meeting be held tomorrow.<it后面用的是动词原形be=虚拟用法>

记住:
It is\was+ requested\ordered\suggested\desired\decided\proposed\+that
导的名词性主语从句中,其谓语部分的should可略。于是就出现3单现作主语也不+S的现象.
>>这是因为虚拟语气在作怪噢,所以你必须学习虚拟部分,既省略should的现象.

It is very important that everyone should work well.大家把工作做好是很重要的。
=It is very important that everyone work well.<everyone后面用动词原形work=虚拟用法>

记住:由 It is\was+important\necessary\strange\natural\funny\surprising+that+
词性主语从句中,其谓语部分的
should可以被省略。

It is strange that he should go himself.真奇怪,他怎么自己独自去呢! <虚拟=本不该>
=It is strange that he go himself.<he后面用的是动词原形go=虚拟用法>
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再论
>>主语从句中的虚拟部分可略should,如:
It is a pity that you should miss a good chance.真遗憾,你失去了之母好的机会.
=It is a pity that you miss a good chance.<you后面用动词原形miss=虚拟用法>

It has been decided that the soorts meet should be put off till next month
.
事情已定,运动会被推迟到下个月.
=It has been decided that the soorts meet be put off till next month.<it后面是原形be=虚拟用法>

评语:
句型It is a pity\a shame(羞愧)\a honour(尊敬)\no wonder(惊讶)...+that+主+should+V...时,出现上述情况.
注意:句子中的it=that引导的主语从句,这叫主语从句的后置现象.

PS:It is time that you should have a class.你早该去上课了.<暗示你快点去吧>
<本句should不可略,你理应干什么而不去干什么,是可以马上兑现的,而不涉及到后悔的难以实现的虚拟情节>
=It is time that you had a class.早就有你的课了.<暗示你快点去吧>
=It is time for you to have a class.该上课了.<暗示你该做某事的时间了>
句型It is time for sb.to do...,如:It is time for you to leave.该走了.<用不定式to do形式来提醒某人>

PS:It is time that you should leave.你早该离开了.<暗示你快点离开吧>
=It is high time that you should leave.=It is time you left.=It is high time you left.

<本句should不可略,你理应干什么而不去干什么,是可以马上兑现的,而不涉及到后悔的难以实现的虚拟情节>
=It is time that you had a class.早就有你的课了.<暗示你快点去吧>
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再论
>>表语从句中的虚拟部分可略should,如:
My suggestion is that Tom should do the experiment again.我的建议是汤姆应该再做1次实验.
=My suggestion is that Tom do the experiment again.<Tom后面用动词原形do=虚拟用法>

His proposal is that they should challenge the other groups to a friendly competition
.
他的提议是他们应该和别的组挑战去进行1场友谊竞赛.
=His proposal is that they challenge the other groups to a friendly competition.

评语:
作主语的这些名词=suggestion(建议),proposal(提议),order(命令),insistence(坚持),extraordinary(非常的),
plan(计划),idea(主意)+is+that+主+should+V...时,出现上述情况.
..................................................................

再论>>同位语从句中的虚拟部分可略should,如:
My suggestion that Tom should do the experiment again is accepted by Tom.
我的再做1次实验的建议被汤姆所接纳.
=My suggestion that Tom do the experiment again is accepted by Tom.

His proposal that they should challenge the other groups to a friendly competition is
praised by the teacher.

他的提议:他们应该和别的组挑战,来1场友谊竞赛,受到老师的表扬.
=His proposal that they challenge the other groups to a friendly competition is praised
by the teacher.

评语:
作主语的这些名词=suggestion(建议),proposal(提议),order(命令),insistence(坚持),extraordinary(非常的),
plan(计划),idea(主意)+
that+主+should+V...+is+...时(同位语从句),出现上述情况.


.............,再如:
He suggested that a reservoir should be built at the foot of the hill.他建议在这座山脚下修座水库。
=He suggested that a reservoir be built at the foot of the hill.<it后面用的是动词原形be=虚拟用法>

The boy insisted that he should go back alone.这孩子坚持要1个人回去。
=The boy insisted that he go back alone.<he后面用的是动词原形go=虚拟用法>

记住:由suggest\request\order\demand\propose\desire\command\insist等及物动词所带的宾语从句,
其谓语部分的
should也可以被省略的。>>这是因为祈使语气在作怪噢,所以你必须联想到命令句=将来时,
将来时必须使用动词原形这一现象,既省略should的虚拟用法.

.............,再如:
My idea is that our class meeting should be held next week.我的意见是下周开班会。
=My idea is that our class meeting be held next week.<it后面用的是动词原形be=虚拟用法>
4.凡是主句中有以suggest,proposal,order,idea,plan,news,motion,demand等名词后面所带的表语从句或同位语
从句中,其谓语部分的
should可以省略。例如:

.............,再如:
She is now studying for fear that she should fail in English
.她现在很勤奋,生怕英语不及格。
=
She is now studying for fear that she fail in English.<it后面用的是动词原形fail=虚拟用法>

You must wake him early lest he should be late for school.你务必早点叫醒他,以免他上学迟到。
=You must wake him early lest he be late for school.<it后面用的是动词原形be=虚拟用法>


记住:lest(以免;免得),in case(以防)和for fear that(生怕,唯恐) 引导的目的状语从句中的谓语部分should
可以省略。所不同的是美国英语通常省掉
should,而英国英语常保留should
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再论
>>状语从句是如何通过动词的时态改变,来实现虚拟的呢,详见:
1.目的状语从句
The foreigner spoke slowly so that I could understand him.
那位老外说得慢,目的我能听得懂他.<学习期间:尽可能地直译,以便弄清英语的思维>
=The foreigner spoke slowly so that I might understand him.
=The foreigner spoke slowly in order that I could understand him.<限目的状语>
=The foreigner spoke slowly in order that I might understand him.<限目的状语>

They got up early so that they might catch up the train.他们早早地起床了,以便能赶上那趟列车.
=They got up early in order that they might catch up the train.<实现愿望or期待愿望的实现>
评语:may\might较为正式;你也有权选用will\would\should;口语多见can\could

2.结果状语从句
The foreigner spoke slowly so that I understood him.那老外说得很慢,结果我懂了他的话.
<非虚拟:期待的目的已经实现>

I'm sorry that he should fail in the exam again.我真难过,他这次考试竟然又没通过.
<虚拟:期待的目的难以实现>
=I'm sorry that he fail in the exam again..<在美语中该句型可省略should>
提示:在虚拟句中使用 过去将来时态 写现在\将来时.

I'm sorry that things should have come to this.我真难过,事情竟落到这般地步.
<虚拟:期待的目的难以实现>
=I'm sorry that things have come to this..<在美语中该句型可省略should>
提示:在虚拟句中使用 过去将来完成时态 写过去时.

He is disappointed that he shouldn't be chosen this time.他很失望,他这次竟然没被选上.
提示:在虚拟句中使用 过去将来时态 写现在\将来时.<虚拟:期待的目的难以实现>


They got up early so that they caught up the train.他们早早地起床,结果赶上了那趟列车.
<非虚拟:期待的目的已经实现>

3.目的状语从句
They got up early lest they should miss the train.他们早早地起了床,生怕误那趟列车.
=They got up early lest they miss the train.<在美语中该句型可省略should>
=They got up early that they might not miss the train
.
=They got up early so that they might not miss the train.
=They got up early in order that they might not miss the train.
评语:lest/lest/免得 可用that\so that\in order that +主+might...not...来切换目的状语从句的虚拟用法.

4.方式状语从句
He speaks English as if he were an Englishman.他说起英语来好像他就是位英国人似的.
提示:在虚拟句中使用 过去时态 写现在时.<虚拟:期待的目的难以实现>
=He speaks English as if he was an Englishman.<也可用was,但在传统上多见用were,以体现虚拟形式>

You are talking as if you had seen them.你谈得那么起劲,好像你真见过似的.
提示:在虚拟句中使用 过去完成时态 写过去时.<虚拟:期待的目的难以实现>
=You talk as if you had seen them.
=You talked as if you had seen them.
=You talk as though you had seen them.
=You talked as though you had seen them.

They talked about the city as if they had seen there before.他们谈起那座城市,好像曾去过似的.
提示:在虚拟句中使用 过去完成时态 写过去时.<虚拟:期待的目的难以实现>
They talked about the city as though they had seen there before.

He stood up as if he would speak.他站立了起来,好像他要发言似的.
提示:在虚拟句中使用 过去将来时态 写将来时.<虚拟:期待的目的难以实现>
He stood up as though he would speak.

请比对以下非虚拟的有实现可能的陈述句seem\appear也能够表示>>好像,如:
He seems to be honest.他好像很诚实.*不定式to be=that ++be...<不定式=从句>
=It seems that he is honest.
=He seems honest.

He appears to be drunk.他好像喝醉了.*不定式to be=从句that ++be...<不定式=从句>
=It appears that he is drunk.
=He appears drunk.

留意表语从句:as if\as though非虚拟用法,既隐约感觉到了事物的存在,如:
It looks as if it is going to rain.天看来要下雨.
=It looks as though it is going to rain.

It sounds as if the door bell is ringing.听上去好像门铃正在响叫.
=It sounds as though the door bell is ringing.

It seems as if the speaker is reciting the speak written by someone else.
=It seems as though the speaker is reciting the speak written by someone else.
听起来好像是在背诵他人写的发言稿.

评语:It seems\appears\looks\sounds\smells+as if\as though 引导的从句写自身判断的事实有可能存在.

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○精彩部分2

只要表示愿望\建议\命令等非现实的事物时,均为虚拟语气。一般认为虚拟语气就是if引导的条件状语从句的一种
延伸现象,其实不仅仅如此,在主\宾\表\同位\状语从句中皆有表现噢,以下是宾语从句的虚拟用法,如:

The PLA men ordered that all the enemy should give up.解放军战士们命令所有的敌人都投降.
=The PLA men ordered that all the enemy give up.<现代英语中常省略should>

评语:当主句的谓语动词选用了suggest建议,insist强调,order命令,demand要求,request需要,command命令,
propose建议,desire欲望...等带有不可逆的这些动词时,你不能用would could might来代替他们的,这是
因为动作的发出者主语在行使著自己现有的权利时,不允许宾语有还价的余地。


.............,再如:
He requested that the students should learn the second language.他要求学生们学第2外语.<宾语从句的虚拟>
=They requested that the students learn the second language.<现代英语中常省略should>

He proposes that she should work out a plan first
.他建议她先定1个计划.<宾语从句的虚拟>
=He proposes that she work out a plan first.<略should后,she 后面的work+s,别忘了这是将来时,必须使用动词原形>

He suggests that she should visit that school.他建议她先参观那所学校.<宾语从句的虚拟>
=He suggests that she visit that school.<略should后,she 后面的visit+s,别忘了这是将来时,必须使用动词原形>
He suggests that she should leave the house at once.他建议她先参观那所学校.<宾语从句的虚拟>
=He suggests that she leave the house at once.<略should后,she 后面的visit不+s,别忘了这是将来时,必须使用动词原形>

PS:He suggested going there at once.他建议立即去那里.<注意:suggest+动名词,不用不定式>
考点:
suggest
倘若不表示建议,转而去表示暗示\略微透露\表明解时,其宾语从句就不用虚拟语气的should了,如:
His face suggested that he was angry.他的脸色表明他已是生气了.
The teacher's tone suggested he didn't care about it.那位老师的语调暗示了他不关心对于此事.<尽可能直译>

He insisted that we should take up the problem at the meeting.他非要主张我们在会上讨论这个问题.
=He insisted that we take up the problem at the meeting.<略should后,也是虚拟语气的过去将来时态>

She insisted that he should show her his passport.她坚决要求他向她出示他的护照.
=She insisted that he show her his passport.<略should,he 后面的show+s,别忘了这是将来时,必须使用动词原形>
=She insisted on his showing her his passport.
=She insisted on him showing her his passport.

考点:
insist
倘若不表示硬要,转而去表示坚称说解时,其宾语从句就不用虚拟语气的should了,如:
He insisted that he was innocent.他坚称他是无辜的.

=He insisted on his innocence.


重复:宾语从句中的虚拟句型由
主+should+V+其它 时,可略掉should<其中should是不能用其它词来替换的>

留意:would rather+宾语从句>>过去时=虚拟用法,如:
I'd rather you cooked the dinner now.我想你应该做饭了现在.
I'd rather you came next weeked.我宁愿你下周末来.
I'd rather you came with us.我想你应该和我们一起来的好.
I'd rather you didn't tell anyone what I said.我想你最好不要把我说的讲给任何人.
I'd rather you went home now.我宁愿你现在就回家.
I'd rather you stayed at home now.我想你最好留在家里现在.
评语:在虚拟句中使用 过去时态 写将来时.<虚拟:期待的目的难以实现>

I'd rather you had gone there.我想你要是去了那里该有多好.
I'd rather you hadn't done that.我希望你没有做那件事该有多好.
提示:在虚拟句中使用 过去完成时态 写过去时.<虚拟:期待的目的难以实现>
留意:在非虚拟的句子中,would rather的后面必须提供1个原形动词,来体现真实的一面,相当于prefer的用法.

记虚拟句型:would you mind+if从句>>过去时
Would you mind if I opened the window?你介意不,如果我打开窗户?
请比较非虚拟句子,如:
Do you mind if I open the window?
Do you mind if I smoke here?你介意不,如果我吸烟在这儿?<学外语时尽可能地直译,了解语序排列>

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○精彩部分3

*提示:英语的从句都是由52英语的5种句子组合而成的<①判断句②描写句③存在句④占有句⑤动态句>

*动词wish 后面的宾语从句往往就使用虚拟的手法,如:
+>I wish I were you.我但愿我就是你有多好噢.<主句=;宾从=><与现在的愿望相反时,虚拟部分用过去时>
本句评语 主句=真实>用>现在时;从句=虚拟>用>过去时。口诀:真用现,虚用过,搭配使用不出错.

+>How I wish it wasn't raining!现在要是不下雨该有多好! <主句=;宾从=>
本句评语 这是动态句的感叹形式,主句=真实>用>现在时;从句=虚拟>用>过去时。口诀:同上<虚拟部分用过去时>
本句中式英语 评语 I how wish it wasn't raining!<how对谓语动词发出感叹时,只将how提前既可>

+>I wish I had learned more.我多么希望我以前能多学一些呀! <主句=;宾从=>
+>He wishes he hadn't made the big mistake.他希望他从前没犯过那样大的错误噢! <主句=;宾从=>
评语 这是含wish感叹形式,从句=虚拟,用了过去完成时。口诀:过去完成回顾中,从前相反愿望用>

+>She wishes we would go there with her.她希望我们同她一起去那儿的.<主句=;宾从=>
本句:wish不能实现,宾从使用了虚拟语气的would,若改用hope则要将would该为will的能实现的非虚拟用法.
比较>She hopes that we will go there with her.她希望我们能同她一起去那儿呀.<主句=;宾从=>
+>I wish I could be of more use in the future.我希望我将来盼有点用处.<主句=;宾从=>
+>How he wishes he would have another chance.他多么希望他能再有一次机会呀! <主句=;宾从=>
评语 这是含wish感叹形式,从句=虚拟,用了过去将来时。口诀:过将虚拟看得见,浮出愿望难实现>

考点:wish+不定式≠虚拟语气,为能实现的用法,习惯上被称作 >> wish+to+do\wish+sb.+to+do的句型,如:
>She wishes to do it.她希望去做这件事.<可实现≠虚拟语气>
>She wishes you to do it.她希望你去做这件事.<可实现≠虚拟语气>

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○精彩部分4

*用should\had\were的倒装写法来省略if的现象,在虚拟从句中多有使用,如:
If you had been there,you would have met him①判断句+⑤动态句
Had you been there,you would have met him.如果你一直在那儿,你一定会遇见他的.

If there should be a meeting tomorrow,he would tell you.③存在句+⑤动态句
Should there be a meeting tomorrow,he would tell you.万一明天有会议,他会告诉你的.

If you had not helped me,I should have failed.⑤动态句+⑤动态句
Had you not helped me,I should have failed.若是没有你的帮助,我就会失败了.

If he had been more careful,he would not have made any spelling mistakes.
Had he been more careful,he would not have made any spelling mistakes.②描写句+⑤动态句
他若能再仔细点,就不会出错了.

............................以下再回顾.......................................................

赠→虚拟语气:1.现在 2.过去 3.将来 4.过去将来 5.完成 6.过去完成 7.过去将来完成=7种虚拟时态
=============================================================================================

★真实条件句用4种时态:1 现在时 |2 过去时 |3 将来时 |4 过去将来时 |祈使句(将来)
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真实条件句的定义:在任何条件下都是真实的写照。
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1.现在时=真实条件句的现实版。
公式:从句=现在时,主句=现在时\将来时

If you are right,then everyone else is wrong.如果你对了,那么其他人就错了。
参考:主句前加then能强调从句的if。
If you own a house in Hollywood,you are very lucky.如果真的在好莱坞你有一幢房子,你是很幸运的。

If I eat too much,I get fat.如果我吃得太多,我就会发胖。
=When I eat too much,I get fat.

If somebody waves a red flag,it usually means danger.若有人挥动一面红色旗,它通常意味着有危险。
=When somebody waves a red flag,it usually means danger. *if=when(定发生)=whenever

参考When the Queen dies,her son will become king.当女王去后,她儿子会当国王的。

If you heat ice,it turns to water.如果你给冰加热,它就变成水。
=If you heat ice,it will turn to water.

If he doesn't hurry up,he will miss the bus.如果他不快点儿,他就要误了汽车了。
=Unless he hurries up,he will miss the bus.

If you like,you can borrow my bicycle.如果你愿意,你可以借我的自行车。
=You can borrow my bicycle,if you like.
=You can,if you like,borrow my bicycle.


If your boyfriend phones,I'll tell him you've gone out with your mother.
如果你男朋友打电话来,我就说你和你妈妈外出了。
意思:It is possible or likely that he will phone.

Well,we will if we hurry.是的,如果我们快点,我们会的。

If you take this medicine,you will soon feel better.你若把这药吃下,你很快会感到舒服些。
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增补非if用法:现\将+状语从句(that主+may\will\can+其它)=表肯定之目的
He is not alone in believing that it may lend to war.不单他1个人认为那会引起战争。*that引导
What have you got that will help a could?你有什么药能治疗感冒吗?
提示:句中的that =引导词又充当从句的主语。
He gets up early so that he may catch the bus.他起床早以便赶那班公车。*so that引导
I'll write today so that he may know when to expect us.我今天就写信好让他知道我们何时到。
We mustn't gorget that there will still be difficulties.我们决不能忘记仍将会有很多困难。
How is it possible that a man can fall so low? 1个人怎么会堕落到这种地步?

*用hope 写真实的虚拟:
Tom hopes that we will go there with him.汤姆希望我们和他一起去那儿。

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2.过去时=真实条件句的过去版。
公式:从句=过去时,主句=过去时\过去将来时

If she went to school in 2000 then she's older than I thought.
她若在2000年上学,那么她的年龄比我想像的要大。

She asked me if I liked school.她问我是否喜欢学校。*你可用 '是否' 来写虚拟的句子
=She asked me whether I liked school.
=She asked me whether or not I liked school.


When he was a child,if he was free,he asked me to tell stories.
当他还是名孩子时,只要他有了空闲,他就让我给讲故事。
He said that if he had money,he would buy me a car.他说,如果他有钱,他就会给我买辆小汽车。
Would you accept that job,if they offered it to you?
如果他们把那份工作给你,你接受吗?

增补非if用法:过+状语从句(that\so that 主+might\could\would\should+其它)=表肯定之目的
We turned on the light so that we might see what it was.我们把灯打开,以便看看它是什么。
We found that he could not swim.我们发现他不会游泳。
They prayed that she would recover.他们为她尽快康复而祈祷。

He left early in order that he might arrive on time.他早早动身好按时赶到。
He left early in order that he would arrive on time.
In order that he should arrive on time he left early.
*只有in order that还可置于句首

He got up early so that he might catch up the train.他早起以便能赶上火车。
=He got up early in order that he could catch up the train.
请比较非虚拟的结果句↓
He got up early so that he caught up the train.他早早起床结果赶上了火车。

He spoke slowly so that I might understand him.
他说得很慢好目的让我能听懂他的话。
=He spoke slowly so that I could understand him. *in order that只表目的
=He spoke slowly in order that I could understand him.
=He spoke slowly in order that I might understand him.

请比较非虚拟的结果句↓
He spoke slowly so that I understood him.他讲得很慢结果我听懂了他讲的话。

增补非if用法:引导词用lest+主+should\might+其它=表否定之目的(以免...) *should可略(美)
I dare not play jokes on him lest he should become angry.我不敢开他的玩笑,生怕他动气。

I was afraid lest the new car should be stolen.我怕的是担心那辆新车会被偷走。
=I was afraid lest the new car be stolen.*should (美)可略

He ran away lest he be seen.他跑开了,生怕被人家看见他。
=He ran away lest he should be seen.
=He ran away lest he might be seen.

请比较切换lest的词that\so that\in ordre that 表目的句↓
He got up carly lest he should miss the bus.他起得很早,生怕误了那班公车。
=He got up early that he might not miss the bus.
=He got up early so that he might not miss the bus.
=He got up early in order that he might not miss the bus.

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3.将来时=真实条件句的未来版。
公式:从句用=将来时\现在时(代),主句=将来时\祈使句(由动词原形引导)

If you'll come this way,I'll show you our latest fashions.你若来这边,我会把最新款式给你看看。

If it rains tomorrow,he won't go to the park.如果明天下雨,他就不去公园。
If you are hungry,please help yourself.你若饿了,请您随便吃。
If anybody visits,ask him to wait a while.如果有人来访,请让他等一会儿。
精华:从现+主将 之原则答题。
增补非if用法:现\将\+状语从句(that\so that 主+should+其它)=表肯定之目的
My own feeling is that we should buy it.我个人的看法是我们应该把它买下来。*that引导

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★非真实条件句也用4种:1 过去时|2 过去将来时|3 过去完成时|4 过去将来完成时|祈使句(将来)
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非真实条件句定义:在任何条件下都不能再实现的设想。
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1.从现在的角度去说与现在的事实不符合的事=非真实条件句

公式:从句=过去时,主句=过去将来时\过去时

If I worked,I wouldn't be so poor.如果我工作了,我就不会如此贫困了。
If I were you,I'd get a job immediately.我若是你,我会立刻找1份工作的。

If I were you,I should/would go at once.如果我是你的话,我就立刻走。

If were* a millionaire,I'd buy some land and a beautiful house.
如果我是个百万富翁,我将买些土地和一幢漂亮的房子。be*的所有形式都可用were.
If I had a million pounds,I'd give it all away.我若有1百万英镑,我会都给出去的。

参考资料:If 主+were/Ved+其它,主+should/would/might/could+v+其它
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*用if only这个习语来表示懊悔的事(无法再挽回了):

If only we knew where she was staying!
要是我们知道她现在在哪里就好了!
=We regret that we don't know. 即:我们懊悔我们不知道。

If only that piece of land belonged to me!
要是那块地属于我该多好!
=It doesn't belong to me,but I wish it did. 即:它不属于我,但我希望属于我。

If only that boy would listen to his parents.
要是那个男孩听他父母的话就好了!
<But he never does但他从不听>

If only I could swim!(But I can't.
要是我会游泳该多好!
If only the weather weren't* so awful.要是天气不那么坏该多好。*be的所有形式都可用were.
If only I were* still your age!要是我仍在你这个年龄该多好!
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*用wish 写虚拟:
I wish I were you.但愿我是你多好啊!
How I wish it wasn't raining!此刻若不下雨该有多好啊!
I wish I could be of more use in the future.我还希望我将来能有点儿用处。

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2.从过去的角度去说过去未实现的事=非真实条件句

公式:从句=过去完成时,主句=过去将来完成时


If television had not been invented,what would we have done in the evenings?
电视机若仍未被发明,我们在晚上会做什么呢?
If you had been there last night,nothing wouldn't have happened.昨晚你若是在那儿,什么事也不会发生。
If you had got there earlier,you would have caught the bus.你若能早到一点的话,你就会赶上那班公车了。
参考资料:If 主+had+过分+其它,主+should/would/might/could+have+过分+其它

*用if only这个习语来表示懊悔应该发生而没有发生的事:
If only you'd been driving more carefully!要是你开车更小心些就好了!
If only my mother and father hadn't quarrelled about me!要是我父母没有因我而争吵就好了?
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3.从将来的角度去说与将来的事实不符的事=非真实条件句

公式:从句=过去时\过去将来时,主句=过去将来时\祈使句(由动词原形引导)


If it were Sunday tomorrow,we wouldn't have an exam.
明天要是周日的话,我们就没有考试了。
If you should meet him,please say "hello" to him.你要真的见到他,请代问他好。*祈使句属于将来时

If you won the first prize,what would you do with the money?你若赢得1等奖,你会用那笔钱干什么?
=If you were to win the first prize,what would you do with the money? *were to=将

If you were to visit the school tomorrow,you would see me.
明天你真的能参观那所学校,你将会见到我。
参考:If 主+Ved(过)\should+其它,主+should/would/might/could+v+其它


虚拟增补:过+状语从句(that主+might+其它)
He was afraid that he might lose his job.他担心会丢掉工作。*that引导

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*虚拟句总结 1:以下A-B-C→都用if引导

A.写真实的从句用>>现在时:If it rains,we'll get wet.如果天下雨,我们就会淋湿的。
→写非真实的从句就改用了>>过去时:If there was no air,people would die.如果没有空气,人们就会死去。

B.写真实的从句用>>过去时:If I wanted anything,I always got it.如果我想要什么,我总能得到它。
→写非真实的从句就改用了>>过去完成时:
If he had driven more carefully,he wouldn't have been injured.他开车若小心些,他就不会受伤的。

C.写真实的从句用>>将来时:If you won't agree,there'll be trouble.你若不同意,会有麻烦的。*威胁
→写非真实的从句就改用了>>过去将来时:
If you should meet him,you would say "hello" to him.你要真能的见到他,请代问他好。
考点1 完成时的假设属于非真实条件句,不可用于真实条件句。
考点2 should*→可能性稍大一些,were* to→可能性最小,除if I were you结构外,其它形式用was 也可。
考点3 否定时少用should\were to形式,改用一般过去时为最佳。


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*虚拟句总结 2:也可根据句子的实际情况采用不同的时态写出非真实的虚拟句

过去完成时(动态句)+过去将来时(描写句):
If you had followed the doctor's advice,you would be all right now.你若听从医生的劝告,你现在就会好了.
=If you had followed the doctor's advice then,you would be all right now.

过去完成时+过去将来完成时=
If you had followed the doctor's advice, you would have been all right then.
你若听从医生的劝告,你那时就好了。
*提供必要的时间状语

过去完成时(动态句)+过去将来进行时(动态句):
If you had watered them more,the crops would be growing still better.
你若再给庄稼多浇些水,就会生长得更好。
=If you had watered them more,the crops would have grown still better.


过去完成时+过去将来进行时:
If I hadn't finished my composition by now,I would be working on it tomorrow.
倘若我现在还没写完作文,我明天就还得写它。


过去完成时(动态句)+过去将来时(占有句):
If he had prepared well for his lessons yesterday,he wouldn't have so many difficulties now.
如果他昨天把功课都准备好了,现在他就不会有如此多的困难了。

注释:以上情况人们称其为错综复杂的时间条件虚拟句。

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*虚拟句总结 3:用with\without\分词短语\介词短语=if形式:

A glarge group is useless with no one in charge.人多没有头雁也无用。
直译:1个大的小组是没有用的,如果没1个负责的。

We might have died without your help.若没有你们的帮助,我们早就呜呼了。
=We might have died if you hadn't helped us.

Having known in time,we could have stopped it.如果及时知道的话,我们可能阻止它。
=If we had known in time,we could have stopped it. *详见非真实2:过完+过将完

I couldn't have lived through Christmas without giving you a present.
整个圣诞节我都过不好的,我若不给你礼物的话。
=I couldn't have lived through Christmas if I hadn't given you a present.


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*虚拟句总结 4:用10个复合连词=if 形式→同时请你比较一下真实与非真实在时态上的不同之处吧

otherwise否则,不然\ in case假使\ but that要不是\ unless除非\ suppose假如\ as long as只要\
provided假若\providing(that)倘若\supposing如果\ suppose要是\ on condition that条件是\


Otherwise :
I was busy last week,otherwise I would have come to see you.上周我很忙,否则我会去看你的。<过+过将完>
=If I had not been busy last week,I would have come to see you.

*本句详见非真实2:过去完成时(否定描写句)+过去将来完成时(动态句)
In case :真实句
In case she comes back,let me know immediately.假使她回来了,让我立刻知道。<英语思维>
But that :
He would have come with us but that he had no money.要不是他没钱,他就会跟我们一起来了。
Unless :真实句
I won't apologize unless she apologizes first.我不会道歉的,除非她先道歉。
Suppose :
Suppose the car should break down again.假定汽车又出了毛病。
As long as:真实句
As long as there is life,there is hope.只要有生命,就有希望。
Provied:真实句
I will agree to go provided my expenses are paid.假如为我负担费用,我就同意去。
=I will agree to go providing that my expenses are paid.
=I will agree to go providing my expenses are paid.
Supposing:真实句
Supposing he is absent,what shall we do?假若她不来,我们怎么办?
=Suppose he is absent,what shall we do?
On condition that:真实句
I'll do it on condition that you pay for everything.我可以做此,条件是你得支付一切费用。

*上述真实句的先决条件是教你如何应用现在时与将来时。
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*虚拟句总结 5:分析其它连词的方法=if 形式:

I money,if I were\was rich then.
=I would have given you more money,if I had had more money.

I would have called you,but I forgot your telephone number.我是该给你打电话,可我忘了您的电话号码。
=I would have called you if I had known your telephone number.But I forgot it.would have given you more money,but I was so poor then.那时我应该再多给你些钱,可是我那时很穷。
=I would have given you more

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*虚拟句总结 6:用倒装的写法省略 if 形式:

Should* I meet her,I would tell her.万一我见到她,我会告诉她的。倒装句
=If I should meet her,I would tell her..*想省略if 吗,should提到句首是倒装句。

Were I in your position,I would do it better.如果我处在你的位置上,我会做得更好。
=If I were in your position,I would do it better.

Had they made preparations,they would have succeeded.他们若是准备得好,他们应该已经成功了。
=If they had made preparations, they would have succeeded.

*上述非真实句是教你如何应用倒装写法来省略if的。

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*虚拟句总结 7:有7词可省略should 之方法=写虚拟句:
suggest建议\insist强调\order命令\demand要求\request要求\command命令\propose建议
①Suggest:
I suggest that he should visit that school.我建议他参观那所学校。
=I suggest that he visit that school.
*visit后面若+s=现在时,本句是将来时,用动词原形来体现噢。
②Insist:
Tom insisted that he be present.汤姆坚持要他出席。*变is=现在时,本句是将来时,用动词原形be来体现噢。
He insisted that Tom should accept these gifts.他一定要汤姆收下这些礼物。
=He insisted that Tom accept these gifts.*accept后面若+s=现在时,本句是将来时,用动词原形来体现噢。
The chairmsn of the meeting insisted that we (should) take up the problem at the meetint.
会议主席坚决主张我们在会上讨论这个问题。
③Order:
The mayor ordered that free food be distributed.市长命令发放免费食品。[dis`tribju:t]vt.
*本句的be+过分=被动,用动词原形be来体现将来时。
He gave orders that the job be done in three days.他指示3天内完成这项工作。
*本句的orders是名词用法,be+done=被动,用动词原形be来体现将来时。
④Demand:

He demanded that Tom should finish it within a week.他要求汤姆在1周内完成它。
=He demanded that Tom finish it within a week.
*finish后面若+es=现在时,本句是将来时,用动词原形来体现之。
⑤Request:
He requested that his son should learn the second language.他要求他的儿子应该学第2外语。
He requested that his son learn the second language.
*learn后面若+s=现在时,本句是将来时,用动词原形来体现噢。
⑥Command:
I command that he go at once.我命令他立刻就去。
*go后面若+es=现在时,本句是将来时,用动词原形来体现之。
⑦Propose:
He proposes that she should work out a plan first.他建议她先订1个计划。
He proposes that she work out a plan first.
*work后面若+s=现在时,本句是将来时,用动词原形来体现噢。

提示:上述可省略should的句子,不要用would,could,might 来切换,以便体现真实性的虚拟用法。

*不能省略should的虚拟写法 It is\was (high) time that+从句,如:
A.It is time that you should have a class.本时间你早已该去上课了。
=It is time that you had a class.

语法:过去时=should+V 表该做某事而没有做某事,再如:
B.It is high time I should leave.我早该离开了。
=It is high time I left.*high 译为:成熟的,如:
It is high time we were off.我们早该动身了。
It is high time we were going.我们该去了。
It is high time he should come to our house for dinner.已经到了他该上咱家吃晚饭的时候了。


比较AB非虚拟写法:
A.It is time (for you) to have a class.上课的时间到了。
B.It is time (for you) to leave.该你走的时间了。

提示:that 引导的是定语从句,跟在名词时间time 的后面起到限制性的说明。
....................................
*虚拟句总结 8:用wish 方法=写虚拟句:
Tom wishes he had learned more.汤姆多希望他以前多学一些啊!
Tom wishes he hadn't made the big mistake.汤姆若不犯那个大错误该多好!

How Tom wishes he would have another chance.汤姆多么希望他能够再有1次机会啊!
Tom wishes she would go there with him.汤姆多么希望她和自己一起去那儿啊!


............................................................................
*虚拟句总结 9:用 It is+natural(形)+that+主+should(可略)+V+其它 的方法=写虚拟句:
公式中的 It=that引导的主语从句,间用该方式来变一般疑问句,常见的9个词是:
\natural\suggested\necessary\requested\ordered\preposed\important\strange\funny\
①natural:
It's only natural that she should be upset by the insult.*be=将来时
=It's only natural that she be upset by the insult.她因受到侮辱而生气那是很自然的。
It's only natural that you should be nervous.你感到紧张是很自然的。
②suggested:
It's only suggested that she should come another day.*be=将来时
=It's only suggested that she come another day.只是建议他改天再来。
③necessary:
It is necessary that he be sent there at once.有必要马上派他到那里去。
*be=将来时, be+过分=被动。
④requested:
It's only requested that she should destroy the letter.
=It's only requested that she destroy the letter.只是要求她销毁那封信。
*destroy后面若+s=现在时,本句是将来时,故用动词原形来体现。
⑤ordered:
It is only ordered that I should stay in bed.只是吩咐我要卧床休息。
⑥proposed:
It was proposed we go to the station to meet our guests.有人建议我们去车站接客人。
*本句是省略从句中的引导词that 与should 的典型例句。*原形go=将来时
⑦important:
It's important that he be quiet.重要的是他应该保持安静。
*本句省略了should 选用原形be 表将来时。
⑧strange:
It is strange that she be so rude.奇怪的是她竟然如此粗鲁。
=It is strange that she should be so rude.[ru:d]a.
⑨funny:
It seems funny that he should have done such a thing.这好像很可笑,他会做出这种事。
*本句选系动词seem 代替be 的典型例句。
It is strange that he should go himself.真奇怪,他怎么自己独自去呢?
=It is strange that he go himself.
*本句省略了should 选原形go 表将来时。

.............................................................................
*虚拟句总结 10:用 It is+a+a pity(名)+that+主+should(可略)+V+其它 的方法=写虚拟句:
公式中的 It=that引导的主语从句,间用该方式来变一般疑问句
①pity:
It is a pity that she should miss a good chance.真遗憾,她失去了这么好的机会。
=It is a pity that she miss a good chance.
*本句省略了should 选原形miss 表将来时。

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*虚拟句总结 11:用 以下3个词+is+that+表语从句 的方法=写虚拟句:
公式中的 that引导的是表语从句
\suggestion\proposal\idea\
①suggestion:
My suggestion is that we should do the experiment again.我的建议是我们再做1次实验。
=My suggestion is that we do the experiment again.*本句省略了should 选原形do 表将来时。
②proposal:
His proposal is that they (should) challenge the other groups to a friendly competition.
他的提议是他们应该和别的组进行一场友谊挑战赛。
③idea:
My idea is that we (should) act on his suggestion.我的意见是我们应该按照他的意见去办。

............................................................
*虚拟句总结 12:用 以下3个词+that+同位语从句 的方法=写虚拟句:
公式中的 that引导的是同位语从句
\suggestion\proposal\idea\
①suggestion:
My suggestion that we (should) do the experiment again is accepted by them.
我的再做一次实验的建议被他们所接纳。
②proposal:
His proposal that they (should) challenge the other groups to a friendly competition is praised by the teacher.他的提议是他们应和别的组来1场友谊挑战赛受到了老师的表扬。

..................................................................
比较
He suggests that she should leave the house at once.他建议她立刻离开这房子。虚拟
His face suggested that he was angry.他的脸表明他生气了。真实:表明
Tom's tone suggested he didn't care about it.汤姆的语调暗示他对此事不关心。真实:暗示
He suggested going there at once.他建议立即去那儿。(suggest后*不跟不定式) 虚拟

Tom insisted that he was innocent.
汤姆坚称他是无辜的。真实:坚称
比较下面简单句:
*Tom insisted on going there regardless of my advice.汤姆不顾我的忠告坚持要去那里。
*Tom insisted on his innocence.汤姆坚称自己是无辜的。

She insisted that Tom should show her his passport.她坚决要求汤姆向她出示护照。
=She insisted that Tom show her his passport.
=She insisted on his\him showing her his passport.
虚拟

→句型:主+wish to do+宾语 \ 主+wish sb.to do+宾语 *是真实的写照,如:
I wish to do it.我希望去做这件事。真实
I wish you to do it.我希望你去做这件事。
真实
...........................................................
*虚拟句总结 13:用 描写句+that+状语从句 的方法=写虚拟句:
①sorry:难过
I am sorry that he should fail in the exam again.我真难过,他这次考试竟然又没通过。
I am sorry that things should have come to this.我很抱歉事情竟落到这般地步。

②disappointed:失望
He is disappointed that he shouldn't be chosen this time.他很失望,他这次竟然没被选上。
比较非虚拟的陈述句:
He is sorry that you lost the game.他很难过你们输了比赛。无:竟然\居然
He felt disappointed that he didn't get a good mark.他感到了失望没能得1个好分数。

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*虚拟句总结 14:用 as if\though,would rather 引导的方法=写虚拟句:
①as if\though:好像
He speaks English as if he were\was an Englishman.他说起英语来好像他是名英国人似的。
It looks as if it was going to rain.看起来似乎要下雨。
She treats him as if he were a stranger.她待他如陌生人。[tri:t]vti.

She treats him as though he were a stranger.她待他如陌生人。
You are talking as though\if you had seen them.你这般谈论好像你真见过似的。
=You talk as though\if you had seen them.
=You talked as though\if you had seen them.

He talked about the city as though\if he had been there before.他谈该城市就好像他去过似的。
He stood up as though\if he would spead.他站起来好像要发言似的。虚拟:不发言

He seems honest.他好像很诚实。虚拟:非真实
=He seems to be honest.
He appears drunk.他好像喝醉了。虚拟:非真实
=He appears to be drunk.
②would rather:表愿望(从句用过去时表虚拟)
I'd rather you came with us.我宁愿你还是跟我们一起来吧。
Would you rather I called him now?你宁愿我现在就打电话给他吗?

I would rather you had gone there.你要是去那里就好了。
I would rather you stayed at home now.你要是现在留在家里就好了。

比较:非虚拟的陈述句↓
It seems that he is honest.他好像很诚实。真实:有可信度
It appears that he is drunk.他好像喝醉了。真实:有可信度

It looks as if it is going to rain.好像是要下雨了。
It sounds as if the door bell is ringing.听起来好像门铃在响。
It seems as if he works hard.给人的印象他工作很努力。
It seems as if it were a dream.恍如一场梦。
My cold feels as though it's getting better.我的感冒好像好多了。


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............................以下再回顾............................................

1.虚拟的真实条件句
真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是如果的意思。

   时态关系
句型:条件从句   主句
一般现在时  shall/will + 动词原形
If he comes, he will bring his violin.
典型例题The volleyball match will be put off if it ___.
A.will rain B. rains C. rained D. is rained

答案B。真实条件句主句为将来时,从句用一般现在时。
注意:
1)在真实条件句中,主句不能用be going to表示将来,该用shall,will.
(错)If you leave now, you are never going to regret it.
(对)If you leave now, you will never regret it.

2)表真理时,主句谓语动词便不用shall(will)+动词原形,而直接用一般现在时的动词形式。
..............................................................
2.虚拟的非真实条件句

1)时态:可以表示过去,现在和将来的情况。它的基本特点是时态退后。
a.同现在事实相反的假设。
句型:条件从句     主句
     一般过去时   should( would) +动词原形
If they were here,they would help you.
b.表示于过去事实相反的假设。
句型:条件从句    主句     
  过去完成时    should(would) have+ 过去分词
If she had worked harder, she would have succeeded.
The rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful.
If my lawyer had been here last Saturday,he would have prevented me from going.
If he had come yesterday,I should / would have told him about it.
含义:He did not come yesterday,so I did not tell him about it.
If he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress.
含义:He was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress.

c.表示对将来的假想
句型:条件从句    主句
一般过去时      should+ 动词原形
were+ 不定式     would + 动词原形
should+ 动词原形
If you succeeded, everything would be all right.
If you should succeed, everything would be all right.
If you were to succeed, everything would be all right.


3.虚拟的混合条件句

主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间,这时主,从句谓语动词的虚拟语气形式因时间不同而不同,
这叫做混合条件句。
If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now.
(从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反。)
If it had rained last night (过去),it would be very cold today(现在).

4.虚拟的条件句的倒装
虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有were,should,或had,可将if省略,
再把were,should或had 移到从句句首,实行倒装。
Were they here now,they could help us.
=If they were here now,they could help us.
Had you come earlier,you would have met him
=If you had come earlier,you would have met him.
Should it rain,the crops would be saved.
=Were it to rain,the crops would be saved.

注意:
在虚拟语气的从句中,动词be的过去时态一律用were,不用was,即在从句中be用were代替。
If I were you, I would go to look for him.如果我是你,就会去找他。
If he were here, everything would be all right.如果他在这儿,一切都会好的。

典型例题
_____to do the work,I should do it some other day.
A.If were I B. I wereC. Were ID. Was I

答案C.在虚拟条件状语中如果有were,should,had这三个词,通常将if省略,主语提前,
变成 were,should,had +主语的形式。但要注意,在虚拟条件状语从句中,
省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说 Were I not to do.,
而不能说 Weren't I to do.
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5 特殊的虚拟语气词should
1)It is demanded\necessary\a pity + that…结构中的主语从句的谓语动词要用should 加动词原形,should 可省略。
句型
(1)suggested
It is (2)importantthat…+ (should) do
(3)a pity
(1)suggested,ordered,proposed,required,demanded,requested,insisted;+(should)do
(2)important, necessary, natural, strange
a pity,a shame,no wonder
(3)It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
It is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow.

2)在宾语从句中的应用
 在表示命令、建议、要求等一类动词后面的从句中。
order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do
I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
He insisted that he (should ) be sent there.

注意:如suggest,insist不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时",
即它们用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时,宾语从句用陈述语气。
The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules.
......................
判断改错:
错You pale face suggests that you (should) be ill.
对Your pale face suggests that you are ill.
错I insisted that you ( should) be wrong.
对I insisted that you were wrong.

3)在表语从句,同位语从句中的应用
 在suggestion,proposal,idea,plan,order,advice等名词后面的表语从句、
同位语从句中要用虚拟语气,即(should)+动词原形。
My idea is that we(should)get more people to attend the conference.
I make a proposal that we(should)hold a meeting next week.

......................
6 wish的虚拟用法
1)用于wish后面的从句,表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望。其宾语从句的动词形式为:
真实状况wish后    
从句动作先于主句动词动作  现在时  过去时
(be的过去式为 were)
从句动作与主句动作同时发生 过去时  过去完成时
(had + 过去分词)
将来不大可能实现的愿望   将来时 would/could +动词原形    
I wish I were as tall as you.我希望和你一样高。
He wished he hadn't said that.他希望他没讲那样的话。
I wish it would rain tomorrow.我希望明天下雨就好了。
2)Wish to do表达法。
Wish sb / sth to do
I wish to see the manager.
=I want to see the manager.
I wish the manager to be informed at once.
=I want the manager to be informed at once.)

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7.比较if only与only if的虚拟情形
÷
only if表示"只有";if only则表示"如果...就好了"。If only也可用于陈述语气。
I wake up only if the alarm clock rings.只有闹钟响了,我才会醒。
If only the alarm clock had rung.当时闹钟响了,就好了。
If only he comes early.但愿他早点回来。

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8 It is (high) time that的--虚拟情形
It is (high) time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形,但should不可省略。
It is time that the children went to bed.
It is high time that the children should go to bed.

...................
9 need "不必做"和"本不该做"的--虚拟情形
didn't need to do表示:过去不必做某事,事实上也没做。.
needn't have done表示:过去不必做某事,但事实上做了。
John went to the station with the car to meet Mary,so she didn't need to walk back home.
约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她不必步行回家了。
John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she needn't have walked back home.
约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她本不必步行回家了
。(Mary步行回家,没有遇上John的车。)
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典型例题
There was plenty of time.She ___.
A. mustn't have hurried B. couldn't have hurriedC. must not hurry D. needn't have hurried
答案D。needn't have done.
意为"本不必",即已经做了某事,而时实际上不必要。
Mustn't have done 用法不正确,对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为
couldn't have done,"不可能已经"。 must not do 不可以(用于一般现在时)。

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