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直接-间接引语

著作[者]:5希望2
中国大陆ZHAOFU
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定义:1.直接引用他人的原话是直接引语。2.用作者的语言转述他人的原话是间接引语。

例如:<><>He said,"I'm lazy.". 直接引语: 他说,“我很懒”。
           He said that he was lazy.间接引语: 他说他很懒。
      [规则]直接引语转变成间接引语时,要注意以下变化:
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A.引语类型的转换:直接引语→间接引语//陈述句(肯,否)→that引导的宾语从句//一般疑问句                      →If/whether引导的宾语从句//特殊疑问句→原疑问词引导的宾语从句//
                 祈使句→ask,tell等动词的宾语补足语

B.人称代词转换:第1人称→与主句主语人称一致//第2人称→与主句的宾语人称一致//
                 第3人称→不变

C.谓语时态的转换:一般现在时→一般过去时//现在进行时→过去进行时//一般将来时→
                  过去将来时
//一般过去时,现在完成时与过去完成时→过去完成时

D.状语背景的转换:here→there//now→then//today→that day//tonight→that night//
                 last night→the night before//yesterday→the day before//
                 this morning→that morning//tomorrow→the next(
or:following)
                 day//next morning→the
next(or:following) morning//
                 the day after tomorrow→in two days time//
                 the day before yesterday→two days before//
                 three days ago→three days before.
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E.代词动词的转换:this→that//these→those//come→go//bring→take

F.谓语引述的转换:Said(to sb)→肯,否→tell,say…疑问→ask…;祈使→ask,tell,order…。

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<><>Tom said:"You are wrong."Tom said that I was wrong.*that为引导词

  <><>
The teacher said,"Do you understand?"*变间接问句
        The teacher asked if we understood.*if为引导词=问号,无须do.

  <><>My teacher said,"I worked here ten years ago."
      My teacher said that he had worked there ten years before.*that为引导词

  <><>"Were you watching TV at this time yesterday,Mary."Peter asked.
        Peter asked Mary if he was watching TV at this time the day before.

  <><>Our teacher said,"Don't be late tomorrow."
        Our teacher asked us not to be late the next day.

  <><>Tom said,"Please open the window."→Tom asked me to open the window.

  <><>My sister asked me,"where have you been?"
        My sister asked me where I had been. *where变为引导词
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注意:a.转述的是习惯/客观事实/谚语等时,时态不改变。如:

  <><>Tom said,"The earth moves round the sun."
        →Tom said that earth moves round the sun.

      b.各种疑问变间接引语时,语序要变为肯(否)形式的陈述句语序。如:

  <><>"What do you mean?"Tom said.
        Tom asked what I meant.*you→I//what变为引导词

  <><>Mary asked,"Are you going to the park tomorrow?"*变间接问句
        Mary asked if I was going to the park the next day.*if为引导词=问号

      c.直接引语跟有具体的时间状语在转述时,时态不用改变。如:

  <><>Tom said,“I joined the Party in 2006.”
        Tom said that he joined the Party in 2006.*I→he/that为引导词

要点:主句=动态句,从句that为引导词时可省略。
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例句合成:
Mr.Jones said that he had just finished work.*间接引语:动态句+动态句
琼斯先生说过他刚刚完成工作。
Mr.Jones told his wife that he had just finished work.*间接引语:动态句+动态句
琼斯先生告诉过他的夫人,他刚刚完成工作。

'I am busy'he said. "我忙"他说道。*直接引语:描写句+动态句
He says that he is busy. 他说他忙.  *间接引语:动态句+描写句
He said that he was busy.他说过,他忙。*间接引语:动态句+描写句
He told me that he was busy. 他告诉过我他忙.*间接引语:动态句+描写句

'I broke that plate,'he said."我把那个盘子打破了,"他说道.*直接引语:+<过去时+过去时>
He says that he broke that plate.他说他打碎了那个盘子.*间接引语:+<现在时+过去时>
He said that he had broken that plate.他说过他打碎了那个盘子.*间接引语:+<过+过完>
He told me that he had broken that plate.他告诉我他打碎了那个盘子.*间接引语:+<过+过完>

'Mr Jones will see you new,'she said."琼斯先生现在要见你,"她说。 *直接引语:将+过
She says that Mr.Jones will see you now.她说琼斯先生现在要见你。 *间接引语:现+将
She said that Mr.Jones would see you now. 她说过琼斯先生现在要见你.*间接引语:过+过将
She told me that Mr.Jones would see you now. 她告诉我琼斯先生现在要见你.*间接引语:过+过将
'You can go now,'the teacher said."你现在可以走了,"老师说. *直接引语:将+过
The teacher says that you can go now. 老师说你现在可以走了。 *间接引语:现+将
The teacher said that you could go now.老师说过你现在可以走了。 *间接引语:过+过将
The teacher told the pupil that he could go now.老师告诉过学生他可以走了.*间接引语:过+过将

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*直接引语总结:

说话时,直接引用别人的原话,称为直接引语。用自己的话转述别人的话称为间接引语。例如:

直接引语:He said, ”I am hungry.”

间接引语:He said that he was hungry.

直接引语转成间接引语时,要注意下列几种变化:

引用类型的转换

直接引语

间接引语

陈述句

that引导的宾语从句

一般疑问句

if/whether引导的宾语从句

特殊疑问句

原疑问词引导的宾语从句

祈使句

ask、tell等动词的宾语补足语


人称代词转换

直接引语

间接引语

第一人称

与主句主语人称一致

第二人称

与主句的宾语人称一致

第三人称

不变


时态转换

当主句谓语动词是过去时,间接引语的事态要相应改变:

直接引语

间接引语

一般现在时

一般过去时

现在进行时

过去进行时

一般将来时

过去将来时

一般过去时

过去完成时

现在完成时

过去完成时

过去完成时

过去完成时


状语转换

如果陈述时“地点、时间”等背景发生变化,引语的相应状语要作适当转换。

直接引语

间接引语

here

there

now

then

today

that day

tonight

that night

last night

the night before

yesterday

the day before

this morning

that morning

tomorrow

the next/following day

next morning

the next/following morning

the day after tomorrow

in two days time

the day before yesterday

two days before

three days ago

three days before

5.其他词的转换

词类

直接引语

间接引语

指示代词

this

that

these

those

方向性动词

come

go

bring

take

6.引述动词转换

直接引语

间接引语

Said(to sb)

陈述句→tell,say…

疑问句→ask…

祈使句→ask,tell,order…

例句:He said: ”You are wrong.”

→He said that I was wrong.

The teacher said, “Do you understand?”

→The teacher asked if we understood.

My father said, “I worked here ten years ago.”

→My father said that he had worked there ten years before.

“Were you watching TV at this time yesterday, Tom.” Peter asked.

→Peter asked Tom if he was watching TV at this time the day before.

Our monitor said, ”Don’t be late tomorrow.”

→Our monitor asked us not to be late the next day.

He said, “Please open the window.”

→He asked me to open the window.

My mother asked me, “Where have you been?”

→My mother asked me where I had been.

注意:当所转述的内容是现在的习惯、客观真理、格言等时,时态不需改变。
如:

He said, “The earth moves round the sun.”

He said that earth moves round the sun.

一般疑问句和特殊疑问句变间接引语时,语序要变为陈述句语序。如:

“What do you mean?” he said.

→He asked what I meant.

She asked, “Are you going to the park tomorrow?”

→She asked if I was going to the park the next day.

如直接引语中具体的过去时间状语,转述时,时态不变。如:

He said, “I joined the Party in 1990.”

→He said that he joined the Party in 1990.

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52神掌 金字塔 不定式 现在分词 过去分词 目录 情态动词 直接-间接引语

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